Covering hydrocarbon-bearing formations, horizontal drilling, reservoir seismology and environmental impacts, this is an invaluable resource for geologists, geophysicists and reservoir engineers.
Author: Mark D. Zoback
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Business & Economics
A comprehensive overview of the key geologic, geomechanical and engineering principles that govern the development of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. Covering hydrocarbon-bearing formations, horizontal drilling, reservoir seismology and environmental impacts, this is an invaluable resource for geologists, geophysicists and reservoir engineers.
Combining both theoretical and practical models backed by data, this book gives reservoir engineers a smarter and more sophisticated tool to approach today's more complex geomechanical modeling challenges.
Author: Jishan Liu
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Conventional geomechanics cannot provide suitable modes of behavior and performance for today's unconventional reservoirs such as the evolution of porosity-permeability relationships with multiphysics coupled effects, which ultimately help determine production rates. Unconventional Reservoir Geomechanics delivers a reference that discusses a variety of approaches tailored in developing geomechanical models and provides a smarter tool to predict hydrocarbon extraction specifically for unconventional reservoirs. Starting with a full explanation on a more unified theoretical framework discussing permeability characterization, the authors advance to offer a full range of new modelling solutions followed by a series of lab-scale and field-scale applications to match the history-verified models, bridging a gap for engineers to fully understand the interactions of multiple processes in field scales from theory to practice. Going a step further, other applications such as CO2 sequestration in coal seam or shale gas reservoirs are explained to illustrate how unconventional reservoir geomechanics can be extended to solve related and even more complex challenges. Combining both theoretical and practical models backed by data, Unconventional Reservoir Geomechanics gives reservoir engineers a smarter and more sophisticated tool to approach today's more complex geomechanical modeling challenges. Provides a foundation of solutions for the extraction of unconventional resources and other related areas Introduces a completely new theoretical framework of coupled multi-spatial and multi-temporal multi-physics in rocks with significant contracts of physical properties among components Focuses on understanding and inclusion of four characteristics of unconventional rocks with applications to areas such as shale gas, coal seam, and CO2 sequestration
This book systematically introduces readers to the simulation theory and techniques of multiple media for unconventional tight reservoirs.
Author: QIQUAN. RAN
Publisher: Springer Nature
This book systematically introduces readers to the simulation theory and techniques of multiple media for unconventional tight reservoirs. It summarizes the macro/microscopic heterogeneities; the features of multiscale multiple media; the characteristics of complex fluid properties; the occurrence state of continental tight oil and gas reservoirs in China; and the complex flow characteristics and coupled production mechanism under unconventional development patterns. It also discusses the simulation theory of multiple media for unconventional tight oil and gas reservoirs; mathematic model of flow through discontinuous multiple media; geological modeling of discrete multiscale multiple media; and the simulation of multiscale, multiphase flow regimes and multiple media. In addition to the practical application of simulation and software for unconventional tight oil and gas, it also explores the development trends and prospects of simulation technology. The book is of interest to scientific researchers and technicians engaged in the development of oil and gas reservoirs, and serves as a reference resource for advanced graduate students in fields related to petroleum. Professor Qiquan Ran has been involved in research on production geology, reservoir engineering, development planning, software development and development strategic planning for volcanic gas reservoirs and unconventional reservoirs. He has served as team leader on over 30 projects, including major projects, scientific research and decision-support projects for industry and technology research and service projects for oil fields. He also was the subject chief in the Major National Special Project "Safe development and utilization technology of natural gas reservoir containing CO2," and the National 973 Project "The effective internal structure characteristics and the flow law of volcanic gas reservoirs." Professor Ran has made significant innovative contributions in the field of development theory and technology for volcanic gas reservoirs, and pioneered advances in the corresponding theory and technology. As a chief expert and a team leader, Professor Ran completed the National 863 Project "Key technology and software development of numerical simulation of typical unconventional oil and gas reservoirs." His research promotes the development of theory & technology of unconventional reservoir development and numerical simulation. He has received 26 awards for science and technology achievements, including 8 first prizes at the provincial level. Professor Ran has published 10 books and over 105 papers, and holds 8 patents and 34 software copyrights.
Principles of Applied Reservoir Simulation, Fourth Edition, continues to provide the fundamentals on these topics for both early and seasoned career engineers and researchers.
Author: John R. Fanchi,
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Category: Technology & Engineering
Reservoir engineers today need to acquire more complex reservoir management and modeling skills. Principles of Applied Reservoir Simulation, Fourth Edition, continues to provide the fundamentals on these topics for both early and seasoned career engineers and researchers. Enhanced with more practicality and with a focus on more modern reservoir simulation workflows, this vital reference includes applications to not only traditional oil and gas reservoir problems but specialized applications in geomechanics, coal gas modelling, and unconventional resources. Strengthened with complementary software from the author to immediately apply to the engineer’s projects, Principles of Applied Reservoir Simulation, Fourth Edition, delivers knowledge critical for today’s basic and advanced reservoir and asset management. Gives hands-on experience in working with reservoir simulators and links them to other petroleum engineering activities Teaches on more specific reservoir simulation issues such as run control, tornado plot, linear displacement, fracture and cleat systems, and modern modelling workflows Updates on more advanced simulation practices like EOR, petrophysics, geomechanics, and unconventional reservoirs
Going beyond the basic fundamentals of rock properties, this guide covers critical field and lab tests, along with interpretations from actual drilling operations and worldwide case studies, including abnormal formation pressures from many ...
Author: Jon Jincai Zhang
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Applied Petroleum Geomechanics provides a bridge between theory and practice as a daily use reference that contains direct industry applications. Going beyond the basic fundamentals of rock properties, this guide covers critical field and lab tests, along with interpretations from actual drilling operations and worldwide case studies, including abnormal formation pressures from many major petroleum basins. Rounding out with borehole stability solutions and the geomechanics surrounding hydraulic fracturing and unconventional reservoirs, this comprehensive resource gives petroleum engineers a much-needed guide on how to tackle today’s advanced oil and gas operations. Presents methods in formation evaluation and the most recent advancements in the area, including tools, techniques and success stories Bridges the gap between theory of rock mechanics and practical oil and gas applications Helps readers understand pore pressure calculations and predictions that are critical to shale and hydraulic activity
Author: Reza Barati GhahfarokhiPublish On: 2020-04-28
The text uses a step-by-step approach to demonstrate industry-standard workflows for calculating resource volume and optimizing the extraction process.
Author: Reza Barati Ghahfarokhi
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Unconventional shale oil and shale gas plays have gained more attention since they are the sole cause of improvements in making the oil and gas business in US and some other companies getting closer to become independent. There is not one comprehensive book with a set of examples and projects that show the step by step approach of calculating the resource volume and optimizing the hydraulic fracturing of unconventional resources. Thus, the primary author has just developed a course in the area of Unconventional Resources from scratch using a unique content that comes from his 10-years of experience in this area. Primary author, Reza and three of his graduate students, developed a unique set of examples, homework assignments, and projects for this course using valuable datasets from the Bakken, Woodford, Mississippian play, and Eagle Ford. He realized that this discipline suffers from a lack of a comprehensive textbook in this area that contains relevant examples, assignments, and projects for students to work on. Thus, as discussed above, unconventional resources have become a game changer in oil and gas industry since early 2000s. Engineering of Shale Resources will be a valuable resource to students, both graduate and undergraduate, and instructors as well as junior staff of oil and gas operators and service companies both nationally and internationally.
In the next eight to ten years, more than 100,000 wells and one- to two-million hydraulic fracturing stages could be executed, resulting in close to one trillion dollars in industry spending. This growth has prompted professionals ex
Author: Usman Ahmed
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
As the shale revolution continues in North America, unconventional resource markets are emerging on every continent. In the next eight to ten years, more than 100,000 wells and one- to two-million hydraulic fracturing stages could be executed, resulting in close to one trillion dollars in industry spending. This growth has prompted professionals experienced in conventional oil and gas exploitation and development to acquire practical knowledge of the unconventional realm. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources: Exploitation and Development provides a comprehensive understanding of the latest advances in the exploitation and development of unconventional resources. With an emphasis on shale, this book: Addresses all aspects of the exploitation and development process, from data mining and accounting to drilling, completion, stimulation, production, and environmental issues Offers in-depth coverage of sub-surface measurements (geological, geophysical, petrophysical, geochemical, and geomechanical) and their interpretation Discusses the use of microseismic, fiber optic, and tracer reservoir monitoring technologies and JewelSuiteTM reservoir modeling software Presents the viewpoints of internationally respected experts and researchers from leading exploration and production (E&P) companies and academic institutions Explores future trends in reservoir technologies for unconventional resources development Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources: Exploitation and Development aids geologists, geophysicists, petrophysicists, geomechanic specialists, and drilling, completion, stimulation, production, and reservoir engineers in the environmentally safe exploitation and development of unconventional resources like shale.
Author: Kenneth Imo-Imo Israel EshietPublish On: 2019-07-10
Fortunately, the surface drilling data provides a reasonable alternative that
enables the entire reservoir modeling and ... wells into 3D reservoir models
provides even more opportunities including using them in reservoir geomechanics, 3D ...
Author: Behrooz Koohmareh HosseiniPublish On: 2015
The increasing demand for hydrocarbons and decreasing reserves have created the necessity to produce oil and gas more efficiently and economically.
Author: Behrooz Koohmareh Hosseini
The increasing demand for hydrocarbons and decreasing reserves have created the necessity to produce oil and gas more efficiently and economically. Increasingly, oil and gas companies are focusing on unconventional hydrocarbons; oil sands, shales and CBM. For this class of reservoir materials, the geomechanical response of the reservoir can play an important role in the recovery process. For naturally fractured, stress sensitive reservoirs or thermal recovery processes, geomechanical processes play an even greater role in efficient, economic recovery. For simulations of these processes, most research efforts have been focused on reservoir geomechanical simulations using conventional reservoir simulators coupled to geomechanical codes. While coupled reservoir-geomechanics modeling has been recently widely studied in the literature, there is no applicable methodology implemented or proposed to mitigate the challenging computational cost involved with the inclusion of geomechanics in large multimillion-cell reservoirs. Past studies so far have focused on different coupling schemes, but not on the efficient and robust simulation workflows. This research was conducted with the aim of development and application of various different strategies to include geomechanics into reservoir simulation workflows in large scale reservoirs and in a timely fashion process. The research was performed to allow the future simulators to perform high resolution reservoir-geomechanical simulations in a large scale (near field and far field) with long simulation time windows and lowest computational cost. Initially, analytical proxies were developed and recommending for implementation in lieu of complex reservoir simulations. The analytical model was for prediction of heavy oil geomechanical responses everywhere in the reservoir. The model adopted the use of the mathematical domain decomposition technique and a novel temperature front tracking developed in the very early stage of the research. As opposed to classical analytical models, the proxy predicted reservoir flow and mechanical behavior (on a synthetic case geometry with real hydraulic data) everywhere in the reservoir and in dynamic and transient flow regimes. Subsequent research was aimed at reservoir-geomechanics coupled model order reduction by use of a numerical proxy. The proxy took advantage of streamline linear space behavior and power in decomposition of the reservoir domain into sub-systems (delineation/drainage areas). The combination of localization and linearization allowed predicting both mechanical and fluid flow responses of the reservoir with only solving the pressure equation in Cartesian underlying 3D grids and the solution of saturation transport equation along only one streamline. Following this, a streamline-based reservoir-geomechanics coupling was proposed and was implemented within a Fortran-C++ based platform. The new developed technique was compared in terms of computational cost and results accuracy with the conventional hydromechanical coupling strategy that was developed on a C++ based platform by use of collocated FV-FEM discretization scheme. One of the final stages of the research explored different streamline-based reservoir-geomechanics coupling strategies for full-field reservoir simulations. Various coupling strategies including sequential coupling schemes and a semi-fully coupling scheme to embed geomechanics into streamline simulation workflow was developed and performed. Numerical software with advanced GUI was coded on QT programming language (C++ based) developed to couple mechanical simulator to streamline simulation engine. While streamline simulations were the center of the research, the last stage of research was conducted on numerical and physical stability, convergence and material balance errors of SL-based reservoir-geomechanics class of couplings. The results provided a solid foundation for proper selection of time-steps in SL-based coupling to ensure a numerically stable and physically robust hydromechanical simulation. As a result we showed that use of streamline simulation in both proxy forms and simulator forms have significant added value in full-field reservoir-geomechanics simulations.
His interests include geostatistics, reservoir characterization and modeling,
subsurface resource evaluation and ... quantities of undiscovered oil and gas,
and predicting flow and geomechanical behavior in unconventional reservoirs.
He has ...
In 2008, large-scale horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing allowed for the exploitation of hydrocarbons from extremely impermeable formations for the first time.
Author: Kevin Lynn McCormack
In 2008, large-scale horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing allowed for the exploitation of hydrocarbons from extremely impermeable formations for the first time. The exploitation of these unconventional reservoirs caused their geomechanical properties to take on new importance. With insight into such properties, it is possible to withdraw more efficiently hydrocarbons from the resources. These properties can be measured in two distinct ways. First, operators can look at in situ properties by drilling into the formations of interest, which is often expensive. The second way of measuring geomechanical properties is the primary focus of this dissertation: seismological data can be used to discern these properties in either the earth's crust or unconventional reservoirs during stimulation. Four chapters tie together a coherent description of the solid earth: The second chapter looks at the ability of teleseismic waves to measure the direction of the maximum horizontal principal stress in the earth's crust at four locations within the United States. The third chapter uses both seismology and other methods of in situ measurements to well explain the hydraulic fractures, microseismic clouds, and production data that were observed at an unconventional site in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in north-central Colorado. The fourth chapter uses similar geomechanical concepts in the development of conventional reservoirs in the Vienna Basin, Austria. Finally, chapter five investigates the clay content of reservoirs - which has implications for their exploitation - using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. All told, this dissertation illuminates both sources of success and difficulties for understanding the earth's crust and economic reservoirs from a seismological and geomechanical perspective.
Porosity, along with permeability, is the most important parameter for
characterizing reservoir quality. ... The exploitation of shales as unconventional reservoirs for oil and gas has only recently become commercially attractive. In the
past, a lot ...
Author: E.H. Rutter
Publisher: Geological Society of London
A surge of interest in the geomechanical and petrophysical properties of mudrocks (shales) has taken place in recent years following the development of a shale gas industry in the United States and elsewhere, and with the prospect of similar developments in the UK. Also, these rocks are of particular importance in excavation and construction geotechnics and other rock engineering applications, such as underground natural gas storage, carbon dioxide disposal and radioactive waste storage. They may greatly influence the stability of natural and engineered slopes. Mudrocks, which make up almost three-quarters of all the sedimentary rocks on Earth, therefore impact on many areas of applied geoscience. This volume focuses on the mechanical behaviour and various physical properties of mudrocks. The 15 chapters are grouped into three themes: (i) physical properties such as porosity, permeability, fluid flow through cracks, strength and geotechnical behaviour; (ii) mineralogy and microstructure, which control geomechanical behaviour; and (iii) fracture, both in laboratory studies and in the field.
Guo, X.; Wu, K.; Killough, J.; Tang, J. Understanding the mechanism of interwell
fracturing interference based on reservoir-geomechanics-fracturing modeling in
Eagle Ford Shale. In Proceedings of the Unconventional Resources Technology
Author: Ruud Weijermars
Category: Technology & Engineering
The massive increase in energy demand and the related rapid development of unconventional reservoirs has opened up exciting new energy supply opportunities along with new, seemingly intractable engineering and research challenges. The energy industry has primarily depended on a heuristic approach—rather than a systematic approach—to optimize and tackle the various challenges when developing new and improving the performance of existing unconventional reservoirs. Industry needs accurate estimations of well production performance and of the cumulative estimated ultimate reserves, accounting for uncertainty. This Special Issue presents 10 original and high-quality research articles related to the modeling of unconventional reservoirs, which showcase advanced methods for fractured reservoir simulation, and improved production forecasting techniques.
Author: Abdulgader Abdullah AlalliPublish On: 2019
With the advancement of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, unconventional shale reservoirs are now capable of being drilled faster and produced economically at commercial rates.
Author: Abdulgader Abdullah Alalli
With the advancement of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, unconventional shale reservoirs are now capable of being drilled faster and produced economically at commercial rates. Although these shale resources are massive in size and globally abundant, they are still being produced with low recovery factors (less than 5\% for shale oil and less than 20\% for shale gas). This low recovery could be attributed to an incomplete understanding of the complex intrinsic properties of shale rocks. In this thesis, I focused on investigating the main factors that control pore volume (porosity) and pore-size distribution of different shale reservoirs and how this variability in pore space can be related to measured permeability and well production. I present in this thesis a laboratory workflow highlighting a series of fluid penetration and permeability measurements performed on multiple shale reservoir samples. My approach looks at characterizing and imaging the nanoscale porosity first to better understand the pore space distribution and building upwards in scale through the permeability measurements. Next, I apply my previous findings towards a specific geochemical application setting involving the hydraulic fracturing fluid composition and its effect on the shale permeability. Lastly, understanding how porosity is distributed across the shale matrix and altered during hydraulic fracturing and throughout production is crucial to identify beforehand as it will have a potential impact on enhancing the recovery factors of producing shales.
The integration of geomechanics with multi-phase, multi-component fluid flow in porous media has several applications in the upstream oil and gas industry.
Author: Deepen Paresh Gala
The integration of geomechanics with multi-phase, multi-component fluid flow in porous media has several applications in the upstream oil and gas industry. It can be applied for both near wellbore and reservoir scale problems in different reservoir types. The development of a 3D geomechanics and compositional flow model coupled with fracture growth capability is presented. The partial differential equations in the reservoir, fracture and well domain are solved in a coupled manner. The model is validated/verified for different physics such as fracture growth, stress around a fracture and well, phase behavior, multiphase flow, compressible flow and poroelasticity. The model is then applied to problems specific to low permeability shale and tight reservoirs, however, the model is very general and can be applied to any subsurface hydrocarbon or water reservoir. Propagation of multiple fractures using different fluids such as slickwater, gases and foams is studied using field scale examples. The impact of variables such as fluid compressibility, viscosity, wellbore volume, reservoir permeability, stress/tensile strength ratio, and poroelasticity on fracture geometry, breakdown and shut-in behavior is investigated in detail. Production from a well and the resulting stress changes are calculated in dry gas, gas condensates, black oil and volatile oil reservoirs. Permeability changes associated with an increase in effective stress on fractures and reservoir rock are shown to have a significant impact on decline rates. The impact of water evaporation and subsequent salt precipitation on productivity in shale gas reservoirs is evaluated. A sensitivity study is performed for variables such as capillary pressure, fracture spacing, reservoir permeability, initial brine saturation, reservoir temperature and well operating BHP. A method of fluid injection (water or gas) in depleted parent wells (known as pre-loading) to minimize damage due to frac-hits is studied. The stress and pressure changes due to fluid injection are shown to be dependent on injection fluid and reservoir fluid type, injection rates and the fracture geometry in parent wells. The compositional and geomechanical effects in a Huff-n-Puff gas injection IOR process in tight oil reservoirs are investigated. The additional recovery and increase in GOR after several Huff-n-Puff cycles is shown to be a function of reservoir and injected fluid composition and hysteresis in permeability as a function of effective stress.
This book gathers selected papers from the 8th International Field Exploration and Development Conference (IFEDC 2018) and addresses a broad range of topics, including: Reservoir Surveillance and Management, Reservoir Evaluation and Dynamic ...
Author: Jia'en Lin
Publisher: Springer Nature
Category: Technology & Engineering
This book gathers selected papers from the 8th International Field Exploration and Development Conference (IFEDC 2018) and addresses a broad range of topics, including: Reservoir Surveillance and Management, Reservoir Evaluation and Dynamic Description, Reservoir Production Stimulation and EOR, Ultra-Tight Reservoirs, Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Technology, Oil and Gas Well Production Testing, and Geomechanics. In brief, the papers introduce readers to upstream technologies used in oil & gas development, the main principles of the process, and various related design technologies. The conference not only provided a platform to exchange experiences, but also promoted the advancement of scientific research in oil & gas exploration and production. The book is chiefly intended for industry experts, professors, researchers, senior engineers, and enterprise managers.
Bridging between subsurface and production, the handbook provides engineers and geoscientists with effective methodology to better define resources and reservoirs.
Author: Y Zee Ma
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Category: Technology & Engineering
Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Handbook: Evaluation and Development is a must-have, helpful handbook that brings a wealth of information to engineers and geoscientists. Bridging between subsurface and production, the handbook provides engineers and geoscientists with effective methodology to better define resources and reservoirs. Better reservoir knowledge and innovative technologies are making unconventional resources economically possible, and multidisciplinary approaches in evaluating these resources are critical to successful development. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Handbook takes this approach, covering a wide range of topics for developing these resources including exploration, evaluation, drilling, completion, and production. Topics include theory, methodology, and case histories and will help to improve the understanding,integrated evaluation, and effective development of unconventional resources. Presents methods for a full development cycle of unconventional resources, from exploration through production Explores multidisciplinary integrations for evaluation and development of unconventional resources and covers a broad range of reservoir characterization methods and development scenarios Delivers balanced information with multiple contributors from both academia and industry Provides case histories involving geological analysis, geomechanical analysis, reservoir modeling, hydraulic fracturing treatment, microseismic monitoring, well performance and refracturing for development of unconventional reservoirs
Author: Corpus Christi Geological SocietyPublish On: 2010
Characterization of Unconventional Reservoirs Traditional methods of core
analysis cannot yisid acceptable results when ... Geological Petrophysical Geomechanical Geochemical To learn more about our unique unconventional reservoir ...
Jan Egil Fivelstad is Manager and Executive Board Member at Blueback Reservoir AS in Stavanger . ... Juliane Heiland is Principal Geomechanics
Engineer and Geomechanics Team Leader at Schlumberger Data & Consulting
Services ( DCS ) in ... developing business in the Barnett , Fayetteville and
Woodford Shales and other unconventional plays such as the Marcellus and
Haynesville Shales .