Thomas Reid and Scepticism

His Reliabilist Response

Thomas Reid and Scepticism

Author: Philip De Bary,Philip de Bary

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134574673

Page: 224

View: 9486

This book bears witness to the current reawakening of interest in Reid's philosophy. It first examines Reid's negative attack on the Way of Ideas, and finds him to be a devastating critic of his predecessors. Turning to the positive part of Reid's programme, the author then develops a fresh interpretation of Reid as an anticipator of present-day 'reliabilism'. Throughout the book, Reid is presented as a powerful thinker with much to say to philosophers in the twenty-first century. The book will be of interest not only to Reid scholars and historians of philosophy, but also to specialists and students in contemporary epistemology.
Categories: Philosophy

Experiments in Ethics

Experiments in Ethics

Author: Kwame Anthony Appiah

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674026094

Page: 274

View: 5782

In the past few decades, scientists of human nature—including experimental and cognitive psychologists, neuroscientists, evolutionary theorists, and behavioral economists—have explored the way we arrive at moral judgments. They have called into question commonplaces about character and offered troubling explanations for various moral intuitions. Research like this may help explain what, in fact, we do and feel. But can it tell us what we ought to do or feel? In Experiments in Ethics, the philosopher Kwame Anthony Appiah explores how the new empirical moral psychology relates to the age-old project of philosophical ethics. Some moral theorists hold that the realm of morality must be autonomous of the sciences; others maintain that science undermines the authority of moral reasons. Appiah elaborates a vision of naturalism that resists both temptations. He traces an intellectual genealogy of the burgeoning discipline of "experimental philosophy," provides a balanced, lucid account of the work being done in this controversial and increasingly influential field, and offers a fresh way of thinking about ethics in the classical tradition. Appiah urges that the relation between empirical research and morality, now so often antagonistic, should be seen in terms of dialogue, not contest. And he shows how experimental philosophy, far from being something new, is actually as old as philosophy itself. Beyond illuminating debates about the connection between psychology and ethics, intuition and theory, his book helps us to rethink the very nature of the philosophical enterprise.
Categories: Performing Arts

The Rise of the Laity in Evangelical Protestantism

The Rise of the Laity in Evangelical Protestantism

Author: Deryck Lovegrove

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134485972

Page: 288

View: 3224

This comprehensive investigation into the involvement of ordinary Christians in Church activities and in anti-clerical dissent, explores a phenomenon stretching from Britain and Germany to the Americas and beyond. It considers how evangelicalism, as an anti-establishmentarian and profoundly individualistic movement, has allowed the traditionally powerless to become enterprising, vocal, and influential in the religious arena and in other areas of politics and culture.
Categories: Religion

Essays on the Active Powers of Man

Essays on the Active Powers of Man

Author: Thomas Reid

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 0748617086

Page: 388

View: 8968

The Essays on the Active Powers of Man (1788) was Thomas Reid's last major work. It was conceived as part of one large work, intended as a final synoptic statement of his philosophy. The first and larger part was published three years earlier as Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (edited as vol. 3 of the Edinburgh Edition of Thomas Reid). These two works are united by Reid's basic philosophy of common sense, which sets out native principles by which the mind operates in both its intellectual and active aspects. The Active Powers shows how these principles are involved in volition, action, and the ability to judge morally. Reid gives an original twist to a libertarian and realist tradition that was prominently represented in eighteenth-century British thought by such thinkers as Samuel Clarke and Richard Price.
Categories: Act (Philosophy)

Locke on Essence and Identity

Locke on Essence and Identity

Author: C.H. Conn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400710054

Page: 212

View: 8756

This book is a study of John Locke's metaphysics of organisms and persons, with particular emphasis on his theory of identity through time and his conventionalism with respect to kinds and essences. After presenting three arguments for thinking that the organisms and persons in Locke's ontology have both spatial and temporal extent, the author argues that on a four-dimensional ontology there is no contradiction between Locke's theory of identity and his rejection of essentialism.
Categories: Philosophy

A Theory of Virtue

Excellence in Being for the Good

A Theory of Virtue

Author: Robert Merrihew Adams

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191525898

Page: 264

View: 9606

The distinguished philosopher Robert M. Adams presents a major work on virtue, which is once again a central topic in ethical thought. A Theory of Virtue is a systematic, comprehensive framework for thinking about the moral evaluation of character. Many recent attempts to stake out a place in moral philosophy for this concern define virtue in terms of its benefits for the virtuous person or for human society more generally. In Part One of this book Adams presents anddefends a conception of virtue as intrinsic excellence of character, worth prizing for its own sake and not only for its benefits. In the other two parts he addresses two challenges to the ancient idea of excellence of character. One challenge arises from the importance of altruism in modern ethical thought, and the question of what altruism has to do with intrinsic excellence. Part Two argues that altruistic benevolence does indeed have a crucial place in excellence of character, but that moral virtue should also be expected to involve excellence in being for other goods besides the well-being (and the rights) of other persons. It explores relations among cultural goods, personal relationships, one's own good, and the good of others, as objects of excellent motives.The other challenge, the subject of Part Three of the book, is typified by doubts about the reality of moral virtue, arising from experiments and conclusions in social psychology. Adams explores in detail the prospects for an empirically realistic conception of excellence of character as an object of moral aspiration, endeavor, and education. He argues that such a conception will involve renunciation of the ancient thesis of the unity or mutual implication of all virtues, and acknowledgment ofsufficient 'moral luck' in the development of any individual's character to make virtue very largely a gift, rather than an individual achievement, though nonetheless excellent and admirable for that
Categories: Electronic books

In the Presence of the Past

Essays in Honor of Frank Manuel

In the Presence of the Past

Author: R.T. Bienvenu,M. Feingold

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401137641

Page: 297

View: 7280

The broad canvas covered by the articles in the present volume celebrates the diversity and richness of the writings of Frank Manuel during a scholarly career that spans over five decades. The subjects of the articles - ranging from science to utopia, from theology to political thought - mirror many of the themes Manuel has written about with erudition, flair and uncommon perception. It is only fitting that in paying tribute to such a defiant intellect each author brings to his treatment a distinct perspective and texture, the result of his own original forays into the history of ideas. Yet underlying all the essays is the conviction that the study of the intersection of individuals and ideas still yields a rich harvest. Presented to Frank on the occasion of his eightieth birthday, In the Presence o/the Past honors a teacher, a friend and, above all, a scholar. R. T. Bienvenu and M. Feingold (eds). ln the presence of the past. vii. MARTIN PERETZ Frank Manuel: An Appreciation It was finally because of Frank Edward Manuel that I decided (however belatedly) to forgo a proper academic career. Since I had not left so much as a leafscar on the tree of the scholarly culture this is not a fact which anyone else would have reason to notice. It is also not, I am happy to add, something for which Manuel will be especially remembered.
Categories: History

Enlightenment

Britain and the Creation of the Modern World

Enlightenment

Author: Roy Porter

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141927720

Page: 752

View: 1026

For generations the traditional focus for those wishing to understand the roots of the modern world has been France on the eve of the Revolution. Porter certainly acknowledges France's importance, but here makes an overwhelming case for consideringBritain the true home of modernity - a country driven by an exuberance, diversity and power of invention comparable only to twentieth-century America. Porter immerses the reader in a society which, recovering from the horrors of the Civil War and decisively reinvigorated by the revolution of 1688, had emerged as something new and extraordinary - a society unlike any other in the world.
Categories: History