This textbook provides a full overview of human-animal studies.
Author: Margo DeMello
Publisher: Columbia University Press
This textbook provides a full overview of human-animal studies. It focuses on the conceptual construction of animals in American culture and the way in which it reinforces and perpetuates hierarchical human relationships rooted in racism, sexism, and class privilege.
Engaging and passionate, this contemporary work provokes new ways of thinking about animal-human interaction.
Author: John Sorenson
Publisher: Canadian Scholars’ Press
Category: Animal rights
Engaging and passionate, this contemporary work provokes new ways of thinking about animal-human interaction. A cutting-edge volume of original essays, Critical Animal Studies examines our exploitation and commodification of non-human animals. By inquiring into the contradictions that have shaped our understanding of animals, the contributors of this collection have set out to question the systemic oppression inherent in our treatment of animals. The collection closes with a thoughtful consideration of some of the complexities of activism, as well as a discussion of how to further the progress of animal rights. Analyzing economic, ethical, historical, and sociological aspects of human-animal relations, this interdisciplinary volume is a must-read for all upper-level students in animal studies, critical animal studies, animals and society, and anthrozoology courses. Features: draws together contributions from some of the most active and committed individuals advancing the field of critical animal studies takes a revolutionary approach to mainstream animal studies by advocating for justice from a politically progressive, abolitionist perspective supports curricular objectives of animal studies courses by encouraging students to critically analyze the shifting roles of animals in contemporary Western society and their consequences
The special place of language in human mentality is reflected in Roger Brown ' s
clear denial of human language and therefore human mentality in nonhuman species : I grant a mind to every human being , to each a full stock of feelings ...
Paul Shepard has been one of the most brilliant and original thinkers in the field of human evolution and ecology for more than forty years.
Author: Paul Shepard
Publisher: Island Press
Paul Shepard has been one of the most brilliant and original thinkers in the field of human evolution and ecology for more than forty years. His thought-provoking ideas on the role of animals in human thought, dreams, personal identity, and other psychological and religious contexts have been presented in a series of seminal writings, including Thinking Animals, The Tender Carnivore and the Sacred Game, and now The Others, his most eloquent book to date.The Others is a fascinating and wide-ranging examination of how diverse cultures have thought about, reacted to, and interacted with animals. Shepard argues that humans evolved watching other animal species, participating in their world, suffering them as parasites, wearing their feathers and skins, and making tools of their bones and antlers. For millennia, we have communicated their significance by dancing, sculpting, performing, imaging, narrating, and thinking them. The human species cannot be fully itself without these others.Shepard considers animals as others in a world where otherness of all kinds is in danger, and in which otherness is essential to the discovery of the true self. We must understand what to make of our encounters with animals, because as we prosper they vanish, and ultimately our prosperity may amount to nothing without them.
Weil's considerations recast the work of such authors as Kafka, Mann, Woolf, and Coetzee, and such philosophers as Nietzsche, Heidegger, Derrida, Deleuze, Agamben, Cixous, and Hearne, while incorporating the aesthetic perspectives of such ...
Author: Kari Weil
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Kari Weil provides a critical introduction to the field of animal studies as well as an appreciation of its thrilling acts of destabilization. Examining real and imagined confrontations between human and nonhuman animals, she charts the presumed lines of difference between human beings and other species and the personal, ethical, and political implications of those boundaries. Weil's considerations recast the work of such authors as Kafka, Mann, Woolf, and Coetzee, and such philosophers as Nietzsche, Heidegger, Derrida, Deleuze, Agamben, Cixous, and Hearne, while incorporating the aesthetic perspectives of such visual artists as Bill Viola, Frank Noelker, and Sam Taylor-Wood and the "visual thinking" of the autistic animal scientist Temple Grandin. She addresses theories of pet keeping and domestication; the importance of animal agency; the intersection of animal studies, disability studies, and ethics; and the role of gender, shame, love, and grief in shaping our attitudes toward animals. Exposing humanism's conception of the human as a biased illusion, and embracing posthumanism's acceptance of human and animal entanglement, Weil unseats the comfortable assumptions of humanist thought and its species-specific distinctions.
This contrast between we-people and they-animals is in a sense mediated by the
further contrast between stylized representation of humans as humans and the
naturalistic representations of humans in animal guise. The implication is that ...
Author: Murray J. Leaf
Publisher: Lexington Books
Category: Family & Relationships
Two characteristics of human beings as a species are: the elaboration of our thought through language and symbolism, and the pluralistic nature of our systems of social organization. This book shows how these two characteristics are related by determining the conceptual structures that are fundamental to human thought and social organization.
In Straw Dogs, John Gray argues that this humanist belief in human difference is an illusion and explores how the world and human life look once humanism has been finally abandoned.
Author: John Gray
Publisher: Granta Books
Straw Dogs is a radical work of philosophy that sets out to challenge our most cherished assumptions about what it means to be human. From Plato to Christianity, from the Enlightenment to Nietzsche and Marx, the Western tradition has been based on arrogant and erroneous beliefs about human beings and their place in the world. Philosophies such as liberalism and Marxism enthrone humankind as a species whose destiny is to transcend natural limits and conquer the Earth. Even in the present day, despite Darwin's discoveries, nearly all schools of thought take as their starting point the belief that humans are radically different from other animals. In Straw Dogs, John Gray argues that this humanist belief in human difference is an illusion and explores how the world and human life look once humanism has been finally abandoned.
Author: Fondation Fyssen. SymposiumPublish On: 2005
If thought is critically dependent on language , then are animals and preverbal human infants bereft of thought ? ... Although Descartes noted some fundamental
similarities between animals and humans in the area of emotion and memory ...
Author: Fondation Fyssen. Symposium
Publisher: MIT Press
Leaders in cognitive psychology, comparative biology, and neuroscience discuss patterns of convergence and divergence seen in studies of human and nonhuman primate brains. The extraordinary overlap between human and chimpanzee genomes does not result in an equal overlap between human and chimpanzee thoughts, sensations, perceptions, and emotions; there are considerable similarities but also considerable differences between human and nonhuman primate brains. From Monkey Brain to Human Brain uses the latest findings in cognitive psychology, comparative biology, and neuroscience to look at the complex patterns of convergence and divergence in primate cortical organization and function. Several chapters examine the use of modern technologies to study primate brains, analyzing the potentials and the limitations of neuroimaging as well as genetic and computational approaches. These methods, which can be applied identically across different species of primates, help to highlight the paradox of nonlinear primate evolution--the fact that major changes in brain size and functional complexity resulted from small changes in the genome. Other chapters identify plausible analogs or homologs in nonhuman primates for such human cognitive functions as arithmetic, reading, theory of mind, and altruism; examine the role of parietofrontal circuits in the production and comprehension of actions; analyze the contributions of the prefrontal and cingulate cortices to cognitive control; and explore to what extent visual recognition and visual attention are related in humans and other primates. The Fyssen Foundation is dedicated to encouraging scientific inquiry into the cognitive mechanisms that underlie animal and human behavior and has long sponsored symposia on topics of central importance to the cognitive sciences.
... though wingless, and I will only place on thy back the men who know Me, who
will offer Me prayers and thanksgivings; men ... always in troops and act in a body
as if of one mind. ... The Place of Animals in Human Thought, by the Countess.
Author: M. Oldfield Howey
Publisher: Courier Corporation
Category: Social Science
Rich compilation of legend and lore from mythology, Bible, folklore, literature, other sources. Tales of headless horses, fairy horses, seahorses, plus associations with gods and patron saints, metempsychosis, creation myths.
Essays consider the role of animals in the human imagination and the imagination of the human; the worldviews of indigenous peoples; animal-human mythology in early modern China; and political uses of the animal in postcolonial India.
Author: Aaron S. Gross
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Human beings have long imagined their subjectivity, ethics, and ancestry with and through animals, yet not until the mid-twentieth century did contemporary thought reflect critically on animals' significance in human self-conception. Thinkers such as French philosopher Jacques Derrida, South African novelist J. M. Coetzee, and American theorist Donna Haraway have initiated rigorous inquiries into the question of the animal, now blossoming in a number of directions. It is no longer strange to say that if animals did not exist, we would have to invent them. This interdisciplinary and cross-cultural collection reflects the growth of animal studies as an independent field and the rise of "animality" as a critical lens through which to analyze society and culture, on a par with race and gender. Essays consider the role of animals in the human imagination and the imagination of the human; the worldviews of indigenous peoples; animal-human mythology in early modern China; and political uses of the animal in postcolonial India. They engage with the theoretical underpinnings of the animal protection movement, representations of animals in children's literature, depictions of animals in contemporary art, and the philosophical positioning of the animal from Aristotle to Derrida. The strength of this companion lies in its timeliness and contextual diversity, which makes it essential reading for students and researchers while further developing the parameters of the discipline.
It is only by shutting animals “away in a class” and depriving “them of expression”
—as Levinas's captors did to him and his ... as radically Other and challenge the
categories under which human thought and practice might place a given animal.
Author: Matthew Calarco
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Social Science
Zoographies challenges the anthropocentrism of the Continental philosophical tradition and advances the position that, while some distinctions are valid, humans and animals are best viewed as part of an ontological whole. Matthew Calarco draws on ethological and evolutionary evidence and the work of Heidegger, who called for a radicalized responsibility toward all forms of life. He also turns to Levinas, who raised questions about the nature and scope of ethics; Agamben, who held the "anthropological machine" responsible for the horrors of the twentieth century; and Derrida, who initiated a nonanthropocentric ethics. Calarco concludes with a call for the abolition of classical versions of the human-animal distinction and asks that we devise new ways of thinking about and living with animals.
Extensive use of empirical examples and case studies is made throughout the book.
Author: Kristin Andrews
The study of animal cognition raises profound questions about the minds of animals and philosophy of mind itself. Aristotle argued that humans are the only animal to laugh, but in recent experiments rats have also been shown to laugh. In other experiments, dogs have been shown to respond appropriately to over two hundred words in human language. In this introduction to the philosophy of animal minds Kristin Andrews introduces and assesses the essential topics, problems and debates as they cut across animal cognition and philosophy of mind. She addresses the following key topics: what is cognition, and what is it to have a mind? What questions should we ask to determine whether behaviour has a cognitive basis? the science of animal minds explained: ethology, behaviourist psychology, and cognitive ethology rationality in animals animal consciousness: what does research into pain and the emotions reveal? What can empirical evidence about animal behaviour tell us about philosophical theories of consciousness? does animal cognition involve belief and concepts; do animals have a ‘Language of Thought’? animal communication other minds: do animals attribute ‘mindedness’ to other creatures? moral reasoning and ethical behaviour in animals animal cognition and memory. Extensive use of empirical examples and case studies is made throughout the book. These include Cheney and Seyfarth’s ververt monkey research, Thorndike’s cat puzzle boxes, Jensen’s research into humans and chimpanzees and the ultimatum game, Pankseep and Burgdorf’s research on rat laughter, and Clayton and Emery’s research on memory in scrub-jays. Additional features such as chapter summaries, annotated further reading and a glossary make this an indispensable introduction to those teaching philosophy of mind, animal cognition. It will also be an excellent resource for those in fields such as ethology, biology and psychology.
A unique interdisciplinary challenge to assumptions about animals and animality deeply embedded in our own ways of thought, exposing sensitive and largely unexplored aspects of the understanding of our common humanity.This book offers a ...
Author: Tim Ingold
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: Social Science
A unique interdisciplinary challenge to assumptions about animals and animality deeply embedded in our own ways of thought, exposing sensitive and largely unexplored aspects of the understanding of our common humanity.This book offers a unique interdisciplinary challenge to assumptions about animals and animality deeply embedded in our own ways of thought, and at the same time exposes highly sensitive and largely unexplored aspects of the understanding of our common humanity.
A point worth bearing in mind when discussing past thinkers is that the way that (
for example) Watson is remembered is a gross ... during Watson's time, the
Darwinian revolution was still fresh and in progress: It was moving the place of
mankind in the world from being the ... abolition of introspection and to the
interpretation of humans as animals as being essentially the same as the
resistance to Darwin, ...
Author: Sam Freed
Publisher: CRC Press
The field of artificial intelligence (AI) has grown dramatically in recent decades from niche expert systems to the current myriad of deep machine learning applications that include personal assistants, natural-language interfaces, and medical, financial, and traffic management systems. This boom in AI engineering masks the fact that all current AI systems are based on two fundamental ideas: mathematics (logic and statistics, from the 19th century), and a grossly simplified understanding of biology (mainly neurons, as understood in 1943). This book explores other fundamental ideas that have the potential to make AI more anthropomorphic. Most books on AI are technical and do not consider the humanities. Most books in the humanities treat technology in a similar manner. AI and Human Thought and Emotion, however is about AI, how academics, researchers, scientists, and practitioners came to think about AI the way they do, and how they can think about it afresh with a humanities-based perspective. The book walks a middle line to share insights between the humanities and technology. It starts with philosophy and the history of ideas and goes all the way to usable algorithms. Central to this work are the concepts of introspection, which is how consciousness is viewed, and consciousness, which is accessible to humans as they reflect on their own experience. The main argument of this book is that AI based on introspection and emotion can produce more human-like AI. To discover the connections among emotion, introspection, and AI, the book travels far from technology into the humanities and then returns with concrete examples of new algorithms. At times philosophical, historical, and technical, this exploration of human emotion and thinking poses questions and provides answers about the future of AI.
Author: Professor Department of Psychology Vicki BrucePublish On: 1996
It would be natural to look to the things we don ' t yet know about animal thinking
when we ask what the next research questions should be . ... Both observation
and experiment have their place in this , but both need to be pursued with an
open mind . ... This is particularly important from the point of view of animal thought , because , as remarked earlier , if animals are at all like humans , they
will not think ...
Author: Professor Department of Psychology Vicki Bruce
Publisher: Psychology Press
This textbook is for use by psychology, neuroscience and cognitive science undergraduates studying cognition.
The rapidly expanding field of critical animal studies now offers a myriad of theoretical and philosophical positions from which to choose. This timely book provides an overview and analysis of the most influential of these trends.
Author: Matthew Calarco
Publisher: Stanford University Press
The rapidly expanding field of critical animal studies now offers a myriad of theoretical and philosophical positions from which to choose. This timely book provides an overview and analysis of the most influential of these trends. Approachable and concise, it is intended for readers sympathetic to the project of changing our ways of thinking about and interacting with animals yet relatively new to the variety of philosophical ideas and figures in the discipline. It uses three rubrics—identity, difference, and indistinction—to differentiate three major paths of thought about animals. The identity approach aims to establish continuity among human beings and animals so as to grant animals equal access to the ethical and political community. The difference framework views the animal world as containing its own richly complex and differentiated modes of existence in order to allow for a more expansive ethical and political worldview. The indistinction approach argues that we should abandon the notion that humans are unique in order to explore new ways of conceiving human-animal relations. Each approach is interrogated for its relative strengths and weaknesses, with specific emphasis placed on the kinds of transformational potential it contains.
The continuities between human and animal minds are increasingly well understood.
Author: Peter Carruthers
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
The continuities between human and animal minds are increasingly well understood. This has led many people to make claims about consciousness in animals, which has often been taken to be crucial for their moral standing. Peter Carruthers argues compellingly that there is no fact of the matter to be discovered, and that the question of animal consciousness is of no scientific or ethical significance. Carruthers offers solutions to two related puzzles. The first is about the place of phenomenal--or felt--consciousness in the natural order. Consciousness is shown to comprise fine-grained nonconceptual contents that are "globally broadcast" to a wide range of cognitive systems for reasoning, decision-making, and verbal report. Moreover, the so-called "hard" problem of consciousness results merely from the distinctive first-person concepts we can use when thinking about such contents. No special non-physical properties--no so-called "qualia"--are involved. The second puzzle concerns the distribution of phenomenal consciousness across the animal kingdom. Carruthers shows that there is actually no fact of the matter, because thoughts about consciousness in other creatures require us to project our first-person concepts into their minds; but such projections fail to result in determinate truth-conditions when those minds are significantly unlike our own. This upshot, however, doesn't matter. It doesn't matter for science, because no additional property enters the world as one transitions from creatures that are definitely incapable of phenomenal consciousness to those that definitely are (namely, ourselves). And on many views it doesn't matter for ethics, either, since concern for animals can be grounded in sympathy, which requires only third-person understanding of the desires and emotions of the animals in question, rather than in first-person empathy.
If the top of a “thought” is gtop = g0 and the subordinated generators are g1 ,... ,
gp expressed in g-coordinates, and with p ... animals (2) ownership among humans and property (3) play pets for human and pets (4) work for humans (5)
relax for ...
Author: Ulf Grenander
Publisher: World Scientific
This monograph reports a thought experiment with a mathematical structure intended to illustrate the workings of a mind. It presents a mathematical theory of human thought based on pattern theory with a graph-based approach to thinking. The method illustrated and produced by extensive computer simulations is related to neural networks. Based mainly on introspection, it is speculative rather than empirical such that it differs radically in attitude from the conventional wisdom of current cognitive science.
More than this, it is about how humans, as babies, acquire the skill of thinking in
the first place. ... This issue for evolutionary theory — how humans became
unique among animals in their capacity to think — provides a suitable starting
point for ...
Author: Peter Hobson
Publisher: Pan Macmillan
In Cradle of Thought Peter Hobson, a Professor of Developmental Psychopathology at the Tavistock Clinic and the University of London, examines how thought develops in infants, focussing on the subsequent differences in the quality of thinking between individuals and what this suggests about the place of thought in the history of evolution. At the book's heart is a radical new theory which tackles head-on the ideas of people like Stephen Pinker. Hobson firmly refutes the notion that thinking is turned on by biologically pre-determined 'modules' in the brain, arguing instead that it arises from the nature and quality of the relationship between parent and child in the first eighteen months of life. Drawing on twenty years of clinical experience, on case histories and experimental and clinical research, this will be a controversial book not only in scientific circles, but also in its contribution to the wider parenting, IQ and nature/nurture debates. Accessible, authoritative and extremely readable, Cradle of Thought is a major work of popular science. 'Any parent reading his account will recognise that it makes sense' Sunday Times