Author: Jn Bremmer,Jan N. Bremmer,Jan R. Veenstra,Jr. VeenstraPublish On: 2002
Author: Jn Bremmer,Jan N. Bremmer,Jan R. Veenstra,Jr. Veenstra
Publisher: Peeters Publishers
Deities, demons, and angels became important protagonists in the magic of the Late Antique world, and were also the main reasons for the condemnation of magic in the Christian era. Supplicatory incantations, rituals of coercion, enticing suffumigations, magical prayers and mystical songs drew spiritual powers to the humain domain. Next to the magician's desire to regulate fate and fortune, it was the communion with the spirit world that gave magic the potential to purify and even deify its practitioners. The sense of elation and the awareness of a metaphysical order caused magic to merge with philosophy (notably Neoplatonism). The heritage of Late Antique theurgy would be passed on to the Arab world, and together with classical science and learning would take root again in the Latin West in the High Middle Ages. The metamorphosis of magic laid out in this book is the transformation of ritual into occult philosophy against the background of cultural changes in Judaism, Graeco-Roman religion and Christianity. This volume, the first in the new series Groningen Studies in Cultural Change, offers the papers presented at the workshop The Metamorphosis of Magic from Late Antiquity to the Early Modern Period held from 22 to 24 June 2000, and organised by Jan N. Bremmer and Jan R. Veenstra. The papers have been written by scholars from such varying disciplines as classics, theology, philosophy, cultural history, and law. Their contributions shed new light upon several old obscurities; they show magic to be a significant area of culture, and they advance the case for viewing transformations in the lore and practice of magic as a barometer with which to measure cultural change.
This book examines the comic and philosophical aspects of Apuleius' Metamorphoses, the ancient Roman novel also known as The Golden Ass. The tales that comprise the novel, long known for their bawdiness and wit, describe the adventures of Lucius, a man who is transformed into an ass. Carl Schlam argues that the work cannot be seen as purely comic or wholly serious; he says that the entertainment offered by the novel includes a vision of the possibilities of grace and salvation.
This book delivers an introduction to the theory programme called structure-genetic sociology. I developed this theory programme in the past 30 years. In the meantime, I have written ten books and numerous articles about the subject. The programme mainly bases on developmental psychology and has worked it out to a theory of the evolution of humankind. It encompasses a theory of social change and social evolution, a theory of the development of economy, society, culture, sciences, religion, morals, law, and manners. The fact of the anthropological evolution of humankind from lower, childlike anthropological stages to more elaborated stages is the most groundbreaking and fascinating fact in all social sciences and humanities. It is the only phenomenon within humanities and social sciences whose relevance and importance corresponds to the fact of biological evolution provided by Darwin?'s evolutionary theory. This fact forms the kernel of the entire theory programme.Structure-genetic sociology is the theoretical heir of the outstanding classical approaches such as the classical sociologies, the classical British anthropology, the ethnology of Lucien L vy-Bruhl, the developmental psychology of Jean Piaget, and the philosophy of symbolic forms of Ernst Cassirer. We can understand these classical achievements only against the background of the more elaborated empirical foundations and theoretical structures of my structure-genetic sociology. It helps to verify, to correct, to develop, and to improve the best traditions of social sciences and humanities. Structure-genetic sociology formulates the essence of three hundred years of social sciences and humanities.
Author: Kimberly B. Stratton,Dayna S. KalleresPublish On: 2014-10-01
Women and Magic in the Ancient World
Author: Kimberly B. Stratton,Dayna S. Kalleres
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Daughters of Hecate unites for the first time research on the problem of gender and magic in three ancient Mediterranean societies: early Judaism, Christianity, and Graeco-Roman culture. The book illuminates the gendering of ancient magic by approaching the topic from three distinct disciplinary perspectives: literary stereotyping, the social application of magic discourse, and material culture. The authors probe the foundations of, processes, and motivations behind gendered stereotypes, beginning with Western culture's earliest associations of women and magic in the Bible and Homer's Odyssey. Daughters of Hecate provides a nuanced exploration of the topic while avoiding reductive approaches. In fact, the essays in this volume uncover complexities and counter-discourses that challenge, rather than reaffirm, many gendered stereotypes taken for granted and reified by most modern scholarship. By combining critical theoretical methods with research into literary and material evidence, Daughters of Hecate interrogates a false association that has persisted from antiquity, to early modern witch hunts, to the present day.
Set in the enchanted mountain of a spirit-queen presiding over an unnamed, postcolonial country, this ethnographic work of ficto-criticism recreates in written form the shrines by which the dead--notably the fetishized forms of Europe's Others, Indians and Blacks--generate the magical powers of the modern state.
The essays in this Handbook, written by leading scholars working in the rapidly developing field of witchcraft studies, explore the historical literature regarding witch beliefs and witch trials in Europe and colonial America between the early fifteenth and early eighteenth centuries. During these years witches were thought to be evil people who used magical power to inflict physical harm or misfortune on their neighbours. Witches were also believed to have made pacts with the devil and sometimes to have worshipped him at nocturnal assemblies known as sabbaths. These beliefs provided the basis for defining witchcraft as a secular and ecclesiastical crime and prosecuting tens of thousands of women and men for this offence. The trials resulted in as many as fifty thousand executions. These essays study the rise and fall of witchcraft prosecutions in the various kingdoms and territories of Europe and in English, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies in the Americas. They also relate these prosecutions to the Catholic and Protestant reformations, the introduction of new forms of criminal procedure, medical and scientific thought, the process of state-building, profound social and economic change, early modern patterns of gender relations, and the wave of demonic possessions that occurred in Europe at the same time. The essays survey the current state of knowledge in the field, explore the academic controversies that have arisen regarding witch beliefs and witch trials, propose new ways of studying the subject, and identify areas for future research.