However counterintuitive the idea might first seem, physiological ecologist Scott Turner demonstrates in this book that many animals construct and use structures to harness and control the flow of energy from their environment to their own ...
Author: J Scott Turner
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Can the structures that animals build--from the humble burrows of earthworms to towering termite mounds to the Great Barrier Reef--be said to live? However counterintuitive the idea might first seem, physiological ecologist Scott Turner demonstrates in this book that many animals construct and use structures to harness and control the flow of energy from their environment to their own advantage. Building on Richard Dawkins's classic, The Extended Phenotype, Turner shows why drawing the boundary of an organism's physiology at the skin of the animal is arbitrary. Since the structures animals build undoubtedly do physiological work, capturing and channeling chemical and physical energy, Turner argues that such structures are more properly regarded not as frozen behaviors but as external organs of physiology and even extensions of the animal's phenotype. By challenging dearly held assumptions, a fascinating new view of the living world is opened to us, with implications for our understanding of physiology, the environment, and the remarkable structures animals build.
Shows that the influence of genes can extend far beyond the bodies in which they reside, manipulating the environment and the behaviour of other individuals.
Author: Richard Dawkins
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins crystallized the gene's eye view of evolution developed by W.D. Hamilton and others. The book provoked widespread and heated debate. Written in part as a response, The Extended Phenotype gave a deeper clarification of the central concept of the gene as theunit of selection; but it did much more besides. In it, Dawkins extended the gene's eye view to argue that the genes that sit within an organism have an influence that reaches out beyond the visible traits in that body - the phenotype - to the wider environment, which can include other individuals.So, for instance, the genes of the beaver drive it to gather twigs to produce the substantial physical structure of a dam; and the genes of the cuckoo chick produce effects that manipulate the behaviour of the host bird, making it nurture the intruder as one of its own. This notion of the extendedphenotype has proved to be highly influential in the way we understand evolution and the natural world. It represents a key scientific contribution to evolutionary biology, and it continues to play an important role in research in the life sciences.The Extended Phenotype is a conceptually deep book that forms important reading for biologists and students. But Dawkins' clear exposition is accessible to all who are prepared to put in a little effort.Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.
14 Culture as an Organism and the Emergence of Universal Culture Is Culture an Organism? ... Thus, I am tempted to extend Christiansen's (1994) idea that
language is an organism to culture itself and suggest that culture is also an organism, ...
Author: Robert K. Logan
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Category: Literary Criticism
The ability to communicate through language is such a fundamental part of human existence that we often take it for granted, rarely considering how sophisticated the process is by which we understand and make ourselves understood. In The Extended Mind, acclaimed author Robert K. Logan examines the origin, emergence, and co-evolution of language, the human mind, and culture. Building on his previous study, The Sixth Language (2000) and making use of emergence theory, Logan seeks to explain how language emerged to deal with the complexity of hominid existence brought about by tool-making, control of fire, social intelligence, coordinated hunting and gathering, and mimetic communication. The resulting emergence of language, he argues, signifies a fundamental change in the functioning of the human mind - a shift from percept-based thought to concept-based thought. From the perspective of the Extended Mind model, Logan provides an alternative to and critique of Noam Chomsky's approach to the origin of language. He argues that language can be treated as an organism that evolved to be easily acquired, obviating the need for the hard-wiring of Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device. In addition Logan shows how, according to this model, culture itself can be treated as an organism that has evolved to be easily attained, revealing the universality of human culture as well as providing an insight as to how altruism might have originated. Bringing timely insights to a fascinating field of inquiry, The Extended Mind will be sure to find a wide readership.
This book is about why organisms work well, or to put it another way, why they
seem to be “designed.” Before I elaborate, I should mention two things the book
is not. First, it is not about intelligent design (ID). Although I touch upon ID
Author: J. Scott Turner
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Physiologist Scott Turner argues eloquently that the apparent design we see in the living world only makes sense when we add to Darwin's towering achievement the dimension that much modern molecular biology has left on the gene-splicing floor: the dynamic interaction between living organisms and their environment. Only when we add environmental physiology to natural selection can we begin to understand the beautiful fit between the form life takes and the way life works.
with , ” the extended sensorium or organism . “ The soul , as it were , occupies
and pervades the sensorium as extended in all directions . ” 1 “ In sensation
proper the soul knows itself as united with the extended sensorium . ” 2 “ If the
soul , in ...
Author: Johnston Estep Walter
"Most of the theories of sense-perception which have been put forth from the earliest days of speculation to the present time have been forms of Representationism, in which the mind is supposed to infer or to know external realities by means of intermediate representatives or agents. Nearly all these theories have owed their existence to one or both of the common doctrines, that the fundamental difference in nature between mind and matter makes the immediate knowledge of the latter impossible, and that the mind can know or act only where it is. The very opposite natures of mind and matter have long been supposed to constitute an entire and unquestionable impossibility of immediate intercourse between them. To explain, then, the possibility of the cognition of material objects by the immaterial mind, a great variety of theories of images, ideas, or mediate agencies, differing in nature, origin, place, and operation, have in successive ages been propounded by philosophers. The other doctrine, that the mind can know or act only where it is, has also made itself greatly felt, and has given rise to similar, or confirmed the apparent necessity of the same, theories of images or vicarious agents to explain perception across an interval of space"--Book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Extended. Cognitive. Systems: Does. the. Scaffolding. of. Language. Extend. the.
Mind? Robert D. Rupert How might it be established that the human mind
extends into the environment surrounding the human organism? The most
Author: Richard Menary
Publisher: MIT Press
Leading scholars respond to the famous proposition by Andy Clark and David Chalmersthat cognition and mind are not located exclusively in the head.
Author: Noah Porter (the Younger.)Publish On: 1872
in our organism itself. For in the consciousness of being thus resisted is inWolved
as a correlative, the consciousness of a resisting something.” (Appendiz to Works
of Reid, Note D*, 28; cf. 20, 23, 24, 25, 26; cf. 864, Note D.) This explanation of ...
How is it shown to be correlative so far as to be extended , except it is taken to be
the analogon of the extended organism , i . e . , like it in being spatial in many
percepts , etc. , etc. , but unlike it in respect to other sense - percepts , as we have
... defines sensation " & subjective experience of the soul as animating an
extended sensorium , ” and when he says that " in each sensation the soul knows
itself to be affected in some separate part of the extended organism which it
Author: Edward John Hamilton
""Mental Science," therefore, is now offered as an educational manual, and as a compend for the reading of those who would inform themselves respecting the doctrines of an earnest philosophy without entering upon non-essential details. The majority of the discussions have been not merely abridged, but simplified; a considerable number have been entirely re-written. Some chapters, too, which are devoted to logical questions, and which may prove serviceable in connection with some future effort, have been omitted. It has, however, been the aim to present a true theory of every normal activity of the intellect"--Preface.
The most uncontroversial of these contextual factors reside in the organism itself.
Developmental systems theorists go one further, however, arguing that
determination involves the entire host of factors shaping the phenotype—the
entire host ...
Author: Robert D. Rupert
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind surveys philosophical issues raised by the situated movement in cognitive science, that is, the treatment of cognitive phenomena as the joint products of brain, body, and environment.
THE ExtENDED PHENotype AND wide systEMs The chief idea of Dawkins's The Extended Phenotype is that the phenotypes that express particular genes or
genetic fragments do not stop at the boundary of the organism, but extend into
Author: Robert A. Wilson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This book undertakes to rethink the place of the individual in the biological sciences, drawing parallels with the cognitive and social sciences. It includes highly accessible discussions of genetic encoding, species and natural kinds, and pluralism above the levels of selection, drawing on work from across the biological sciences.The book is a companion to the author's Boundaries of the Mind, also available from Cambridge, where the focus is the cognitive sciences. It will appeal to professionals and students in philosophy, biology, and the history of science.
''What Are the Units of Selection in Modular Organisms?'' Oikos 54: 227–33. (
1989b). ''Hierarchical Selection in Modular Organisms.'' Trends in Ecology and
Evolution 4: 209–13. Turner, J. S. (2000), The Extended Organism: The
Author: Peter Godfrey-Smith
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Draws on new developments in biology, philosophy of science, and other fields to give a new analysis and extension of Darwin's evolutionary mechanism.
J . Scott Turner , biologist and environmental scientist , associate professor
biology department State University of New York College of Environmental
Science and Forestry , author of The Extended Organism : The Physiology of
Animal - Built ...
Author: David Loye
Publisher: SUNY Press
Category: Social Science
Outlines how a new working partnership between psychologists and evolutionary systems scientists can help create a more humanistic evolutionary theory.
The Extended Organism: The Physiology of Animal-Built Structures. Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press Turner, J. 2004. Extended phenotypes and extended organisms. Biology and Philosophy 19, 327–52 Viveiros de Castro, E.
Author: Benjamin Alberti
Category: Social Science
A new generation of archaeologists has thrown down a challenge to post-processual theory, arguing that characterizing material symbols as arbitrary overlooks the material character and significance of artifacts. This volume showcases the significant departure from previous symbolic approaches that is underway in the discipline. It brings together key scholars advancing a variety of cutting edge approaches, each emphasizing an understanding of artifacts and materials not in terms of symbols but relationally, as a set of associations that compose people’s understanding of the world. Authors draw on a diversity of intellectual sources and case studies, paving a dynamic road ahead for archaeology as a discipline and theoretical approaches to material culture.
In Purpose and Desire, Turner draws on the work of Claude Bernard, a contemporary of Darwin revered among physiologists as the founder of experimental medicine, to build on Bernard’s "dangerous idea" of vitalism, which seeks to identify ...
Author: J. Scott Turner
A professor, biologist, and physiologist argues that modern Darwinism’s materialist and mechanistic biases have led to a scientific dead end, unable to define what life is—and only an openness to the qualities of "purpose and desire" will move the field forward. Scott Turner contends. "To be scientists, we force ourselves into a Hobson’s choice on the matter: accept intentionality and purposefulness as real attributes of life, which disqualifies you as a scientist; or become a scientist and dismiss life’s distinctive quality from your thinking. I have come to believe that this choice actually stands in the way of our having a fully coherent theory of life." Growing research shows that life's most distinctive quality, shared by all living things, is purpose and desire: maintain homeostasis to sustain life. In Purpose and Desire, Turner draws on the work of Claude Bernard, a contemporary of Darwin revered among physiologists as the founder of experimental medicine, to build on Bernard’s "dangerous idea" of vitalism, which seeks to identify what makes "life" a unique phenomenon of nature. To further its quest to achieve a fuller understanding of life, Turner argues, science must move beyond strictly accepted measures that consider only the mechanics of nature. A thoughtful appeal to widen our perspective of biology that is grounded in scientific evidence, Purpose and Desire helps us bridge the ideological evolutionary divide.
But our previous analysis has established the conclusion that sense-perception
is an act of knowledge gained in connection with sensations experienced by the
soul as connected with an extended organism. The beings known in connection ...
Author: Noah Porter
Publisher: Applewood Books
""With our American Philosophy and Religion series, Applewood reissues many primary sources published throughout American history. Through these books, scholars, interpreters, students, and non-academics alike can see the thoughts and beliefs of Americans who came before us.""
A Lockean organism is thus the temporally extended aggregate of its
successively existing constituent masses of matter. As diachronic compounds,
Lockean organisms must obviously have both spatial and temporal extent. Now
as with ...
Author: C.H. Conn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book is a study of John Locke's metaphysics of organisms and persons, with particular emphasis on his theory of identity through time and his conventionalism with respect to kinds and essences. After presenting three arguments for thinking that the organisms and persons in Locke's ontology have both spatial and temporal extent, the author argues that on a four-dimensional ontology there is no contradiction between Locke's theory of identity and his rejection of essentialism.
emerges as the elusive sense of self is the organism as represented inside its
own brain. ... The complex kind of consciousness, extended consciousness,
provides the organism with an elaborate sense of self, an identity and a person,
Author: Olga Bogdashina
Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Publishers
Olga Bogdashina argues persuasively that, contrary to popular belief, spirituality plays a vital role in the lives of many people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Drawing on interdisciplinary research from fields as diverse as psychology, philosophy, anthropology, linguistics, neuroscience and religion, as well as first-hand experiences of people on the spectrum, she shows how people with ASD experience their inner worlds and sense of self, and how this shapes the spiritual dimension of their lives and vice versa. She presents a coherent framework for understanding the routes of spiritual development and 'spiritual giftedness' within this group, offering insights that will inform understanding of how to support and nurture spiritual wellbeing in people with ASDs. This book gives a voice to both verbal and non-verbal individuals on the autism spectrum whose spiritual experiences, though often unconventional, are meaningful and profound. It is essential reading for all those interested in the spiritual wellbeing of this group, including pastoral carers and counsellors, ministers of religion, spiritual leaders, parents and carers and individuals on the autism spectrum.
The diversity of the organism from the spirit or ego is given by the manifest dis .
tinction recognized by the mind between the affections of its own causative
energy and those of the organism which often resist this energy and stimulate it to
Author: Noah PORTER (the Younger.)Publish On: 1872
The diversity of the organism from the spirit or ego is given by the manifest
distinction recognized by the mind between ... to be pleasurably or painfully
affected by the soul as connected with the extended organism, either by simple
reception of ...