The Extended Organism

The Extended Organism

However counterintuitive the idea might first seem, physiological ecologist Scott Turner demonstrates in this book that many animals construct and use structures to harness and control the flow of energy from their environment to their own ...

Author: J Scott Turner

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674044495

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 750

Can the structures that animals build--from the humble burrows of earthworms to towering termite mounds to the Great Barrier Reef--be said to live? However counterintuitive the idea might first seem, physiological ecologist Scott Turner demonstrates in this book that many animals construct and use structures to harness and control the flow of energy from their environment to their own advantage. Building on Richard Dawkins's classic, The Extended Phenotype, Turner shows why drawing the boundary of an organism's physiology at the skin of the animal is arbitrary. Since the structures animals build undoubtedly do physiological work, capturing and channeling chemical and physical energy, Turner argues that such structures are more properly regarded not as frozen behaviors but as external organs of physiology and even extensions of the animal's phenotype. By challenging dearly held assumptions, a fascinating new view of the living world is opened to us, with implications for our understanding of physiology, the environment, and the remarkable structures animals build.
Categories: Science

The Extended Phenotype

The Extended Phenotype

Shows that the influence of genes can extend far beyond the bodies in which they reside, manipulating the environment and the behaviour of other individuals.

Author: Richard Dawkins

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198788911

Category:

Page: 496

View: 857

In The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins crystallized the gene's eye view of evolution developed by W.D. Hamilton and others. The book provoked widespread and heated debate. Written in part as a response, The Extended Phenotype gave a deeper clarification of the central concept of the gene as theunit of selection; but it did much more besides. In it, Dawkins extended the gene's eye view to argue that the genes that sit within an organism have an influence that reaches out beyond the visible traits in that body - the phenotype - to the wider environment, which can include other individuals.So, for instance, the genes of the beaver drive it to gather twigs to produce the substantial physical structure of a dam; and the genes of the cuckoo chick produce effects that manipulate the behaviour of the host bird, making it nurture the intruder as one of its own. This notion of the extendedphenotype has proved to be highly influential in the way we understand evolution and the natural world. It represents a key scientific contribution to evolutionary biology, and it continues to play an important role in research in the life sciences.The Extended Phenotype is a conceptually deep book that forms important reading for biologists and students. But Dawkins' clear exposition is accessible to all who are prepared to put in a little effort.Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.
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The Extended Mind

The Extended Mind

14 Culture as an Organism and the Emergence of Universal Culture Is Culture an
Organism? ... Thus, I am tempted to extend Christiansen's (1994) idea that
language is an organism to culture itself and suggest that culture is also an
organism, ...

Author: Robert K. Logan

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 9781442691803

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 320

View: 283

The ability to communicate through language is such a fundamental part of human existence that we often take it for granted, rarely considering how sophisticated the process is by which we understand and make ourselves understood. In The Extended Mind, acclaimed author Robert K. Logan examines the origin, emergence, and co-evolution of language, the human mind, and culture. Building on his previous study, The Sixth Language (2000) and making use of emergence theory, Logan seeks to explain how language emerged to deal with the complexity of hominid existence brought about by tool-making, control of fire, social intelligence, coordinated hunting and gathering, and mimetic communication. The resulting emergence of language, he argues, signifies a fundamental change in the functioning of the human mind - a shift from percept-based thought to concept-based thought. From the perspective of the Extended Mind model, Logan provides an alternative to and critique of Noam Chomsky's approach to the origin of language. He argues that language can be treated as an organism that evolved to be easily acquired, obviating the need for the hard-wiring of Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device. In addition Logan shows how, according to this model, culture itself can be treated as an organism that has evolved to be easily attained, revealing the universality of human culture as well as providing an insight as to how altruism might have originated. Bringing timely insights to a fascinating field of inquiry, The Extended Mind will be sure to find a wide readership.
Categories: Literary Criticism

The Tinkerer s Accomplice

The Tinkerer s Accomplice

This book is about why organisms work well, or to put it another way, why they
seem to be “designed.” Before I elaborate, I should mention two things the book
is not. First, it is not about intelligent design (ID). Although I touch upon ID
obliquely ...

Author: J. Scott Turner

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674044487

Category: Science

Page: 294

View: 194

Physiologist Scott Turner argues eloquently that the apparent design we see in the living world only makes sense when we add to Darwin's towering achievement the dimension that much modern molecular biology has left on the gene-splicing floor: the dynamic interaction between living organisms and their environment. Only when we add environmental physiology to natural selection can we begin to understand the beautiful fit between the form life takes and the way life works.
Categories: Science

The Perception of Space and Matter

The Perception of Space and Matter

with , ” the extended sensorium or organism . “ The soul , as it were , occupies
and pervades the sensorium as extended in all directions . ” 1 “ In sensation
proper the soul knows itself as united with the extended sensorium . ” 2 “ If the
soul , in ...

Author: Johnston Estep Walter

Publisher:

ISBN: HARVARD:HNU5IX

Category: Matter

Page: 451

View: 296

"Most of the theories of sense-perception which have been put forth from the earliest days of speculation to the present time have been forms of Representationism, in which the mind is supposed to infer or to know external realities by means of intermediate representatives or agents. Nearly all these theories have owed their existence to one or both of the common doctrines, that the fundamental difference in nature between mind and matter makes the immediate knowledge of the latter impossible, and that the mind can know or act only where it is. The very opposite natures of mind and matter have long been supposed to constitute an entire and unquestionable impossibility of immediate intercourse between them. To explain, then, the possibility of the cognition of material objects by the immaterial mind, a great variety of theories of images, ideas, or mediate agencies, differing in nature, origin, place, and operation, have in successive ages been propounded by philosophers. The other doctrine, that the mind can know or act only where it is, has also made itself greatly felt, and has given rise to similar, or confirmed the apparent necessity of the same, theories of images or vicarious agents to explain perception across an interval of space"--Book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Categories: Matter

The Extended Mind

The Extended Mind

Extended. Cognitive. Systems: Does. the. Scaffolding. of. Language. Extend. the.
Mind? Robert D. Rupert How might it be established that the human mind
extends into the environment surrounding the human organism? The most
promising ...

Author: Richard Menary

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262014038

Category: Philosophy

Page: 382

View: 905

Leading scholars respond to the famous proposition by Andy Clark and David Chalmersthat cognition and mind are not located exclusively in the head.
Categories: Philosophy

The Elements of Intellectual Science a Manual for Schools and Colleges Abridged from The Human Intellect

The Elements of Intellectual Science a Manual for Schools and Colleges  Abridged from  The Human Intellect

in our organism itself. For in the consciousness of being thus resisted is inWolved
as a correlative, the consciousness of a resisting something.” (Appendiz to Works
of Reid, Note D*, 28; cf. 20, 23, 24, 25, 26; cf. 864, Note D.) This explanation of ...

Author: Noah Porter (the Younger.)

Publisher:

ISBN: BL:A0025152132

Category:

Page:

View: 201

Categories:

The Elements of Intellectual Science

The Elements of Intellectual Science

How is it shown to be correlative so far as to be extended , except it is taken to be
the analogon of the extended organism , i . e . , like it in being spatial in many
percepts , etc. , etc. , but unlike it in respect to other sense - percepts , as we have
 ...

Author: Noah Porter

Publisher:

ISBN: CHI:089891399

Category: Intellect

Page: 565

View: 223

Categories: Intellect

Mental Science

Mental Science

... defines sensation " & subjective experience of the soul as animating an
extended sensorium , ” and when he says that " in each sensation the soul knows
itself to be affected in some separate part of the extended organism which it
pervades ...

Author: Edward John Hamilton

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015026309917

Category: Psychology

Page: 416

View: 354

""Mental Science," therefore, is now offered as an educational manual, and as a compend for the reading of those who would inform themselves respecting the doctrines of an earnest philosophy without entering upon non-essential details. The majority of the discussions have been not merely abridged, but simplified; a considerable number have been entirely re-written. Some chapters, too, which are devoted to logical questions, and which may prove serviceable in connection with some future effort, have been omitted. It has, however, been the aim to present a true theory of every normal activity of the intellect"--Preface.
Categories: Psychology

Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind

Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind

The most uncontroversial of these contextual factors reside in the organism itself.
Developmental systems theorists go one further, however, arguing that
determination involves the entire host of factors shaping the phenotype—the
entire host ...

Author: Robert D. Rupert

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199702145

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 441

Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind surveys philosophical issues raised by the situated movement in cognitive science, that is, the treatment of cognitive phenomena as the joint products of brain, body, and environment.
Categories: Philosophy

Genes and the Agents of Life

Genes and the Agents of Life

THE ExtENDED PHENotype AND wide systEMs The chief idea of Dawkins's The
Extended Phenotype is that the phenotypes that express particular genes or
genetic fragments do not stop at the boundary of the organism, but extend into
the ...

Author: Robert A. Wilson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521544955

Category: Psychology

Page: 296

View: 968

This book undertakes to rethink the place of the individual in the biological sciences, drawing parallels with the cognitive and social sciences. It includes highly accessible discussions of genetic encoding, species and natural kinds, and pluralism above the levels of selection, drawing on work from across the biological sciences.The book is a companion to the author's Boundaries of the Mind, also available from Cambridge, where the focus is the cognitive sciences. It will appeal to professionals and students in philosophy, biology, and the history of science.
Categories: Psychology

Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection

Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection

''What Are the Units of Selection in Modular Organisms?'' Oikos 54: 227–33. (
1989b). ''Hierarchical Selection in Modular Organisms.'' Trends in Ecology and
Evolution 4: 209–13. Turner, J. S. (2000), The Extended Organism: The
Physiology ...

Author: Peter Godfrey-Smith

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199552047

Category: Philosophy

Page: 207

View: 992

Draws on new developments in biology, philosophy of science, and other fields to give a new analysis and extension of Darwin's evolutionary mechanism.
Categories: Philosophy

The Great Adventure

The Great Adventure

J . Scott Turner , biologist and environmental scientist , associate professor
biology department State University of New York College of Environmental
Science and Forestry , author of The Extended Organism : The Physiology of
Animal - Built ...

Author: David Loye

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 0791459233

Category: Social Science

Page: 346

View: 200

Outlines how a new working partnership between psychologists and evolutionary systems scientists can help create a more humanistic evolutionary theory.
Categories: Social Science

Archaeology After Interpretation

Archaeology After Interpretation

The Extended Organism: The Physiology of Animal-Built Structures. Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press Turner, J. 2004. Extended phenotypes and
extended organisms. Biology and Philosophy 19, 327–52 Viveiros de Castro, E.
2004.

Author: Benjamin Alberti

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781315434247

Category: Social Science

Page: 417

View: 394

A new generation of archaeologists has thrown down a challenge to post-processual theory, arguing that characterizing material symbols as arbitrary overlooks the material character and significance of artifacts. This volume showcases the significant departure from previous symbolic approaches that is underway in the discipline. It brings together key scholars advancing a variety of cutting edge approaches, each emphasizing an understanding of artifacts and materials not in terms of symbols but relationally, as a set of associations that compose people’s understanding of the world. Authors draw on a diversity of intellectual sources and case studies, paving a dynamic road ahead for archaeology as a discipline and theoretical approaches to material culture.
Categories: Social Science

Purpose and Desire

Purpose and Desire

In Purpose and Desire, Turner draws on the work of Claude Bernard, a contemporary of Darwin revered among physiologists as the founder of experimental medicine, to build on Bernard’s "dangerous idea" of vitalism, which seeks to identify ...

Author: J. Scott Turner

Publisher: HarperCollins

ISBN: 9780062651587

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 531

A professor, biologist, and physiologist argues that modern Darwinism’s materialist and mechanistic biases have led to a scientific dead end, unable to define what life is—and only an openness to the qualities of "purpose and desire" will move the field forward. Scott Turner contends. "To be scientists, we force ourselves into a Hobson’s choice on the matter: accept intentionality and purposefulness as real attributes of life, which disqualifies you as a scientist; or become a scientist and dismiss life’s distinctive quality from your thinking. I have come to believe that this choice actually stands in the way of our having a fully coherent theory of life." Growing research shows that life's most distinctive quality, shared by all living things, is purpose and desire: maintain homeostasis to sustain life. In Purpose and Desire, Turner draws on the work of Claude Bernard, a contemporary of Darwin revered among physiologists as the founder of experimental medicine, to build on Bernard’s "dangerous idea" of vitalism, which seeks to identify what makes "life" a unique phenomenon of nature. To further its quest to achieve a fuller understanding of life, Turner argues, science must move beyond strictly accepted measures that consider only the mechanics of nature. A thoughtful appeal to widen our perspective of biology that is grounded in scientific evidence, Purpose and Desire helps us bridge the ideological evolutionary divide.
Categories: Science

The Human Intellect

The Human Intellect

But our previous analysis has established the conclusion that sense-perception
is an act of knowledge gained in connection with sensations experienced by the
soul as connected with an extended organism. The beings known in connection ...

Author: Noah Porter

Publisher: Applewood Books

ISBN: 9781429019286

Category: Philosophy

Page: 704

View: 614

""With our American Philosophy and Religion series, Applewood reissues many primary sources published throughout American history. Through these books, scholars, interpreters, students, and non-academics alike can see the thoughts and beliefs of Americans who came before us.""
Categories: Philosophy

Locke on Essence and Identity

Locke on Essence and Identity

A Lockean organism is thus the temporally extended aggregate of its
successively existing constituent masses of matter. As diachronic compounds,
Lockean organisms must obviously have both spatial and temporal extent. Now
as with ...

Author: C.H. Conn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400710054

Category: Philosophy

Page: 212

View: 595

This book is a study of John Locke's metaphysics of organisms and persons, with particular emphasis on his theory of identity through time and his conventionalism with respect to kinds and essences. After presenting three arguments for thinking that the organisms and persons in Locke's ontology have both spatial and temporal extent, the author argues that on a four-dimensional ontology there is no contradiction between Locke's theory of identity and his rejection of essentialism.
Categories: Philosophy

Autism and Spirituality

Autism and Spirituality

emerges as the elusive sense of self is the organism as represented inside its
own brain. ... The complex kind of consciousness, extended consciousness,
provides the organism with an elaborate sense of self, an identity and a person,
and ...

Author: Olga Bogdashina

Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Publishers

ISBN: 9780857005915

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 435

Olga Bogdashina argues persuasively that, contrary to popular belief, spirituality plays a vital role in the lives of many people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Drawing on interdisciplinary research from fields as diverse as psychology, philosophy, anthropology, linguistics, neuroscience and religion, as well as first-hand experiences of people on the spectrum, she shows how people with ASD experience their inner worlds and sense of self, and how this shapes the spiritual dimension of their lives and vice versa. She presents a coherent framework for understanding the routes of spiritual development and 'spiritual giftedness' within this group, offering insights that will inform understanding of how to support and nurture spiritual wellbeing in people with ASDs. This book gives a voice to both verbal and non-verbal individuals on the autism spectrum whose spiritual experiences, though often unconventional, are meaningful and profound. It is essential reading for all those interested in the spiritual wellbeing of this group, including pastoral carers and counsellors, ministers of religion, spiritual leaders, parents and carers and individuals on the autism spectrum.
Categories: Psychology

THE HUMAN INTELLECT PSYCHOLOGY AND THE SOUL 1869

THE HUMAN INTELLECT  PSYCHOLOGY AND THE SOUL  1869

The diversity of the organism from the spirit or ego is given by the manifest dis .
tinction recognized by the mind between the affections of its own causative
energy and those of the organism which often resist this energy and stimulate it to
 ...

Author: NOAH PORTER D.D.

Publisher:

ISBN: UOMDLP:afy5729:0001.001

Category:

Page:

View: 807

Categories:

The Human Intellect with an Introduction Upon Psychology and the Soul

The Human Intellect  with an Introduction Upon Psychology and the Soul

The diversity of the organism from the spirit or ego is given by the manifest
distinction recognized by the mind between ... to be pleasurably or painfully
affected by the soul as connected with the extended organism, either by simple
reception of ...

Author: Noah PORTER (the Younger.)

Publisher:

ISBN: BL:A0025139338

Category:

Page:

View: 707

Categories: