At this stage in our discussion of native American societies we need to know with
the highest degree of probability what the ... They might. The Americas That Might Have Been depiction here is but one of many, and it should be taken for what it ...
Author: Julian Granberry
Publisher: University of Alabama Press
Imagines the development of the Western Hemisphere without European contact and colonization. This work answers the hypothetical question: What would the Americas be like today—politically, economically, culturally—if Columbus and the Europeans had never found them, and how would American peoples interact with the world's other societies? It assumes that Columbus did not embark from Spain in 1492 and that no Europeans found or settled the New World afterward, leaving the peoples of the two American continents free to follow the natural course of their Native lives. The Americas That Might Have Been is a professional but layman-accessible, fact-based, nonfiction account of the major Native American political states that were thriving in the New World in 1492. Granberry considers a contemporary New World in which the glories of Aztec Mexico, Maya Middle America, and Inca Peru survived intact. He imagines the roles that the Iroquois Confederacy of the American Northeast, the powerful city-states along the Mississippi River in the Midwest and Southeast, the Navajo Nation and the Pueblo culture of the Southwest, the Eskimo Nation in the Far North, and the Taino/Arawak chiefdoms of the Caribbean would play in American and world politics in the 21st Century. Following a critical examination of the data using empirical archaeology, linguistics, and ethnohistory, Granberry presents a reasoned and compelling discussion of native cultures and the paths they would have logically taken over the past five centuries. He reveals the spectacular futures these brilliant pre-Columbian societies might have had, if not for one epochal meeting that set off a chain of events so overwhelming to them that the course of human history was forever changed. Julian Granberry is Language Coordinator with Native American Language Services in Florida and author of numerous publications, including A Grammar and Dictionary of the Timucua Language. Additional reviews: "Offers the latitude to explain a model of cultural evolution based on kinship categories while speculating about hjow several Indian nations might have developed sans colonialism."—North Dakota Quarterly "Granberry offers scenarios that should have us thinking of the innumerable possible trajectories that these societies might have followed had they not been impacted by Europeans."—Journal of Anthropological Research
largely on the archaeological interpretation of sites in the Americas that might have been occupied by humans earlier than 13,000 years ago. A growing body
of archaeologists are questioning the “Clovis-first” hypothesis, arguing that there
Author: T. A. Brown
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Social Science
Illustrated thoroughly, Biomolecular Archaeology is the first book to clearly guide students through the study of ancient DNA: how to analyze biomolecular evidence (DNA, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) to address important archaeological questions. The first book to address the scope and methods of this new cross-disciplinary area of research for archaeologists Offers a completely up-to-date overview of the latest research in this innovative subject Guides students who wish to become biomolecular archaeologists through the complexities of both the scientific methods and archaeological goals. Provides an essential component to undergraduate and graduate archaeological research
The very shallow Bering Sea , which is 180 feet ( 55 meters ) deep between
Alaska ( in North America ) and Siberia ( in Asia ) , might have been dry land ,
forming a land bridge between the two continents . Some archaeologists call the
If Indians had united, they could have prevented the European invasion. ... In
addition, as time passed, more Europeans would arrive along the coasts; it would have been impossible for tribes to unite and reassemble every time another ship
Author: Devon A. Mihesuah
Publisher: SCB Distributors
Category: Social Science
American Indians: Stereotypes & Realities provides an informative and engaging Indian perspective on common misconceptions concerning American Indians which afflict public and even academic circles to this very day. Written in a highly accessible stereotype/reality format, it includes numerous illustrations and brief bibliographies on each topic PLUS these appendices: * Do's and Don'ts for those who teach American Indian history and culture * Suggested Guidelines for Institutions with Scholars who Conduct Research on American Indians * Course outline for American Indian history and culture survey with suggested projects * Outline for course "American Indian Women in History" with extensive bibliography An American Indian perspective on discrimination issues WIDELY ENDORSED BY AMERICAN INDIAN SCHOLARS "Professor Mihesuah goes beyond simply providing responses to common stereotypes. She provides the reader with assistance in efforts to improve understanding of her peoples. Each of the chapters provides solid information to challenge myths and stereotypes. Excellent photographs are interspersed throughout the book.... The implications of this book for social work practice are extensive... A valuable contribution" Journal of Multicultural Social Work "A precious primer on Native Americans for anyone who can handle the truth about how the West was won." Kam Williams, syndicated "This book should be read by every educator and included in the collections of every school and university library." Flagstaff Live "Mihesuah's work should be required reading for elemetary and upper level teachers, college instructors and parents. Let us hope it finds a wide readership in mainstream circles." Joel Monture, MultiCultural Review "Devon Mihesuah has provided precious insight into the racial identity and cultural struggles of American Indians as they strive to succeed in modern America. She has successfully challenged harmful stereotypes and racism in this significant book... If an accurate history is to be learned, then society must accept the truth of cultural pluralism and give equal and fair treatment to Native Americans and other minorities... As an American Indian and a university scholar of history, I applaud Devon Mihesuah for successfully confronting the literature of false portrayal and negative images of Indian people." Dr. Donald L. Fixico, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo
important, if the Native American population had met the invaders with some
foreknowledge of their culture and with vastly superior numbers, conquest would have been out of the question, at least until Europeans acquired a new level of ...
Author: Rodney P. Carlisle
This work is a fascinating history of precontact North America, presenting the facts and engaging the reader by using alternative history—what if key facts were different?—to help develop critical thinking skills.
Unfortunately for the Indians of the Americas, high ideals succumbed rapidly to
the harsh reality of the urgent need for labor in the ... Some may even have been
free (such as Pedro Alonso Nifio and Juan Garrido who accompanied
Author: Thomas H. Holloway
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The Companion to Latin American History collects the work of leading experts in the field to create a single-source overview of the diverse history and current trends in the study of Latin America. Presents a state-of-the-art overview of the history of Latin America Written by the top international experts in the field 28 chapters come together as a superlative single source of information for scholars and students Recognizes the breadth and diversity of Latin American history by providing systematic chronological and geographical coverage Covers both historical trends and new areas of interest
Committee and generally additional funds have been requested and
appropriated, for the continuance of these programs. ... It became necessary to
greatly expand the information program of the Office so that all of the Americas might know of ...
Author: United States. Congress
The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. It is published daily when Congress is in session. The Congressional Record began publication in 1873. Debates for sessions prior to 1873 are recorded in The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States (1789-1824), the Register of Debates in Congress (1824-1837), and the Congressional Globe (1833-1873)
To the principle of that doctrine in its primitive form it is conceivable that all the American nations might have been rallied. Had that come about, a phenomenon would have been produced which would have profoundly affected International ...
Author: Geoffrey G. Butler
Publisher: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.
Butler, Sir Geoffrey and Simon Maccoby. The Development of International Law. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1928. xxxv, 566 pp. Reprinted 2003 by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. ISBN 1-58477-215-8. Cloth. $70. * Writing in the Yale Law Review, J.P. Bullington observes that "[t]he most striking feature about this work is the method of treatment--quite the most effective which has yet been employed in dealing with the subject. Believing that the changes in international law have been the reflection of changes in the political theory and practice of states, the author has divided his work into three major periods--the Age of the Prince, the Age of the Judge, and the Age of the Concert... Based on a wide knowledge of history filtered through an objective and realistic brain, this book must take its place as one of the most valuable contributions to the history of international law." Yale Law Review 38:843 quoted in Marke, A Catalogue of the Law Collection at New York University, (1953) 566.
Had resources for internal security operations in the 1960s been linked more
closely to the Rio Treaty's objectives of conflict resolution among allies, for
instance, other Central American rivalries might have followed the Nicaraguan-
Author: Christopher Darnton
Publisher: JHU Press
Category: Political Science
Rivalry and Alliance Politics in Cold War Latin America, Christopher Darnton’s comparative study of the nature of conflict between Latin American states during the Cold War, provides a counterintuitive and shrewd explanation of why diplomacy does or doesn’t work. Specifically, he develops a theory that shows how the "parochial interests" of state bureaucracies can overwhelm national leaders’ foreign policy initiatives and complicate regional alliances. His thorough evaluation of several twentieth-century Latin American conflicts covers the gamut of diplomatic disputes from border clashes to economic provocations to regional power struggles. Darnton examines the domestic political and economic conditions that contribute either to rivalry (continued conflict) or rapprochement (diplomatic reconciliation) while assessing the impact of U.S. foreign policy. Detailed case studies provide not only a robust test of the theory but also a fascinating tour of Latin American history and Cold War politics, including a multilayered examination of Argentine-Brazilian strategic competition and presidential summits over four decades; three rivalries in Central America following Cuba’s 1959 revolution; and how the 1980s debt crisis entangled the diplomatic affairs of several Andean countries. These questions about international rivalry and rapprochement are of particular interest to security studies and international relations scholars, as they seek to understand what defuses regional conflicts, creates stronger incentives for improving diplomatic ties between states, and builds effective alliances. The analysis also bears fruit for contemporary studies of counterterrorism in its critique of parallels between the Cold War and the Global War on Terror, its examination of failed rapprochement efforts between Algeria and Morocco, and its assessment of obstacles to U.S. coalition-building efforts.
As national symbols , both helped to unify the many Americas of Walt Whitman ' s
poetry . As Thorndike would claim , ' Shakespeare has been a symbol of unity , a
moving force . ' 92 Shakespeare became one of the symbols that allowed the ...
Similarly, several authors have maintained that a greater use of the doctrine could allow for a reappropriation of local and regional particularisms that might have been pushed aside in the Americas with the ascension of human rights and
Author: Lukasz Gruszczynski
Publisher: OUP Oxford
International courts and tribunals are often asked to review decisions originally made by domestic decision-makers. This can often be a source of tension, as the international courts and tribunals need to judge how far to defer to the original decisions of the national bodies. As international courts and tribunals have proliferated, different courts have applied differing levels of deference to those originial decisions, which can lead to a fragmentation in international law. International courts in such positions rely on two key doctrines: the standard of review and the margin of appreciation. The standard of review establishes the extent to which national decisions relating to factual, legal, or political issues arising in the case are re-examined in the international court. The margin of appreciation is the extent to which national legislative, executive, and judicial decision-makers are allowed to reflect diversity in their interpretation of human rights obligations. The book begins by providing an overview of the margin of appreciation and standard of review, recognising that while the margin of appreciation explicitly acknowledges the existence of such deference, the standard of review does not: it is rather a procedural mechanism. It looks in-depth at how the public policy exception has been assessed by the European Court of Justice and the WTO dispute settlement bodies. It examines how the European Court of Human Rights has taken an evidence-based approach towards the margin of appreciation, as well as how it has addressed issues of hate speech. The Inter-American system is also investigated, and it is established how far deference is possible within that legal organisation. Finally, the book studies how a range of other international courts, such as the International Criminal Court, and the Law of the Sea Tribunal, have approached these two core doctrines.
Despite a huge outcry and debates that concluded that the discovery of America might have been a mistake , the genocide against the Indians ... 30 The Indians
had a spiritual relationships with the trees , stars , plants and all animals .
Author: William Marder
Publisher: Book Tree
Many books over the years have promised to tell the true story of the Native American Indians. Many, however, have been filled with misinformation or derogatory views. Finally here is a book that the Native American can believe in. This well researched book tells the true story of Native American accomplishments, challenges and struggles and is a gold mine for the serious researcher. It includes extensive notes to the text and over 500 photographs and illustrations -- many that have never before been published. The author, after 20 years of research, has attempted to provide the world with the most truthful and accurate portrayal of the Native American Indians. Every serious researcher and Native American family should have this ground-breaking book.
... election of cern his faithful Commons feel , for the their own officers ; and that
Ireland , wherseries of disappointments and calamitous ever her just complaints might have been events that have attended the American no longer had reason
The Europeans introduced epidemic smallpox to the Americas but not until 1518,
a quarter century after maritime contact. ... century the most likely people to carry
smallpox to the Americas would have been nonimmunes or infected children.
Author: Jeremy Adelman
More than other Atlantic societies, Latin America is shackled to its past. This collection is an exploration of the binding historical legacies--the making of slavery, patrimonial absolutist states, backward agriculture and the imprint of the Enlightenment--with which Latin America continues to grapple. Leading writers and scholars reflect on how this heritage emerged from colonial institutions and how historians have tackled these legacies over the years, suggesting that these deep encumbrances are why the region has failed to live up to liberal-capitalist expectations. They also invite discussion about the political, economic and cultural heritages of Atlantic colonialism through the idea that persistence is a powerful organizing framework for understanding particular kinds of historical processes.
It consists of a shallow basin in which grapes would have been crushed (
probably by foot), with a hole allowing the juice to flow into an underground vat,
where it fermented. These vessels, along with cups and bowls, showed evidence
Author: Rod Phillips
Publisher: UNC Press Books
Whether as wine, beer, or spirits, alcohol has had a constant and often controversial role in social life. In his innovative book on the attitudes toward and consumption of alcohol, Rod Phillips surveys a 9,000-year cultural and economic history, uncovering the tensions between alcoholic drinks as healthy staples of daily diets and as objects of social, political, and religious anxiety. In the urban centers of Europe and America, where it was seen as healthier than untreated water, alcohol gained a foothold as the drink of choice, but it has been more regulated by governmental and religious authorities more than any other commodity. As a potential source of social disruption, alcohol created volatile boundaries of acceptable and unacceptable consumption and broke through barriers of class, race, and gender. Phillips follows the ever-changing cultural meanings of these potent potables and makes the surprising argument that some societies have entered "post-alcohol" phases. His is the first book to examine and explain the meanings and effects of alcohol in such depth, from global and long-term perspectives.
The great era of European exploration began well before 1496 or 1492, and it could have happened much earlier. Asians might have been the first to reach
Europe and the Americas had they been motivated to do so. But certain factors
Author: Caroline Cox
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
Describes the history of voyages to the United States and Canada, including those of Alexander Mackenzie, John Cabot, Giovanni da Verrazano, Jacques Cartier, and David Thompson. Opens with Alexander MacKenzie's 1793 journey across North America to the Pacific Ocean and covers discovery and exploration in North America from 1497 through 1800. An examination of some of the earliest accounts of Egyptian and Mesopotamian explorations. An account of Dr. David Livingstone's search for the source of the Nile River in the jungles of central Africa in 1871. The exciting story of the ascent to the summit of Mount Everest, the world's tallest mountain, by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay. A description of the race to the North Pole and all that it entailed, including various explorers' theories on how to achieve this goal. The epic saga of Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery and their journey across America. The dramatic story of the explosion that damaged Apollo 13 and the three-day struggle of the men inside, along with those in mission command on the ground, culminating in their safe return to Earth, and more. Each book's gripping narrative shares these events appeal with readers while firsthand accounts of characters, climate, and terrain will help them see discovery and exploration from a fresh perspective. Includes black-and-white illustrations, maps, sidebars, a glossary, a bibliography, and an index.
In more recent times (in contrast with the sweep of time during which Native
Americans have inhabited the Americas), berdaches might have been raised to
be so from childhood. A young boy might be put through an ordeal by which the
Author: Ronald Long
Compare worldwide religious regulations involving gay sex and masculinity! Men, Homosexuality, and the Gods: An Exploration into the Religious Significance of Male Homosexuality in World Perspective is an eye-opening look at the traditions of particular religions and their edicts concerning gay sex. This book examines the origins of holy directives involving homosexuality—whether forbidden, tolerated, or mandatory—and establishes a link between theology, sex roles, and the sensitive issue of masculinity. This text draws a parallel between homosexuality and the idea of religion, suggesting that gay rights can be understood as a freedom of religion issue. While most readers are familiar with the traditional Islamic, Christian, and Hebrew prohibitions against sex between two males, this book also reveals other historic religions from around the world that neither opposed nor looked down on homosexuality. Men, Homosexuality, and the Gods argues that masculinity is the universal theme that formed historical interpretation—warriors and men of high status could not be sexually receptive or “feminine” and still be called “men.” This intriguing text shows how the modern homophile movements are in effect redefining masculinity to obliterate the stigma of being a sexually receptive man. Men, Homosexuality, and the Gods examines the significance of homosexuality in such religions as: the Sambians of New Guinea the Taoists of Ancient China Plato and the later Stoics Islamic Sufism Native American culture Hebrew Scriptures early Christianity Buddhism Men, Homosexuality, and the Gods is an enlightening book that honors homosexual claims to moral integrity and appreciates religion and religious figures without rancor. Easy-to-read and free of technical language, this volume is for anyone who has an academic, professional, or personal interest in theology and homosexuality. The author is available for speaking engagements and can be contacted at [email protected]
Many of the authors would have been most surprised to find themselves now
considered African American. They fled the country ... Down the road, we might
have to turn to a consistently lower-case use of “white” and “black.” Only in the
Author: Gene Andrew Jarrett
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Literary Criticism
Through a series of essays that explore the forms, themes, genres, historical contexts, major authors, and latest critical approaches, A Companion to African American Literature presents a comprehensive chronological overview of African American literature from the eighteenth century to the modern day Examines African American literature from its earliest origins, through the rise of antislavery literature in the decades leading into the Civil War, to the modern development of contemporary African American cultural media, literary aesthetics, and political ideologies Addresses the latest critical and scholarly approaches to African American literature Features essays by leading established literary scholars as well as newer voices
JON BUTLER HAS RECENTLY ARGUED that the transatlantic slave trade
shattered African systems of religion , describing it as “ a holocaust that destroyed
collective religious practice in colonial America . ” It would not have been
Author: Gad J. Heuman
Publisher: Psychology Press
'The Slavery Reader' brings together the most recent & essential writings on slavery. The focus is on Atlantic slavery between the 15th & 19th centuries & key themes include: the origins & developmwnt of American slavery, work, slave culture, slave economy, resistance, & race & social structure.