Strong Borders Secure Nation

Strong Borders  Secure Nation

Yet, as M. Taylor Fravel shows in Strong Borders, Secure Nation, concerns that China might be prone to violent conflict over territory are overstated.

Author: M. Taylor Fravel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400828872

Category: Political Science

Page: 408

View: 246

As China emerges as an international economic and military power, the world waits to see how the nation will assert itself globally. Yet, as M. Taylor Fravel shows in Strong Borders, Secure Nation, concerns that China might be prone to violent conflict over territory are overstated. The first comprehensive study of China's territorial disputes, Strong Borders, Secure Nation contends that China over the past sixty years has been more likely to compromise in these conflicts with its Asian neighbors and less likely to use force than many scholars or analysts might expect. By developing theories of cooperation and escalation in territorial disputes, Fravel explains China's willingness to either compromise or use force. When faced with internal threats to regime security, especially ethnic rebellion, China has been willing to offer concessions in exchange for assistance that strengthens the state's control over its territory and people. By contrast, China has used force to halt or reverse decline in its bargaining power in disputes with its militarily most powerful neighbors or in disputes where it has controlled none of the land being contested. Drawing on a rich array of previously unexamined Chinese language sources, Strong Borders, Secure Nation offers a compelling account of China's foreign policy on one of the most volatile issues in international relations.
Categories: Political Science

The Paracel Islands and U S Interests and Approaches in the South China Sea

The Paracel Islands and U S  Interests and Approaches in the South China Sea

56. Fravel , Strong Borders , Secure Nation , p . 276 ; and Encyclopedia
Britannica , undated , “ Paracel Islands , " available from www . britannica.com/
EBchecked/topic/442423/Paracel-Islands . 57. Fravel , Strong Borders , Secure
Nation , pp .

Author: Clarence J. Bouchat

Publisher: Department of the Army

ISBN: UCSD:31822041172354

Category: Law

Page: 199

View: 168

The Paracel Islands and South China Sea disputes require better understanding by U.S. policymakers in order to address the regions challenges. To attain that needed understanding, legal aspects of customary and modern laws are explored in this monograph to analyze the differences between competing maritime and territorial claims, and why and how China and Vietnam stake rival claims or maritime legal rights. Throughout, U.S. policies are examined through U.S. conflicted interests in the region. Recommendations for how the United States should engage these issues, a more appropriate task than trying to solve the disputes outright, are then offered.
Categories: Law

Active Defense

Active Defense

What changes in China’s modern defense policy reveal about military organizations and strategy Active Defense offers the first systematic look at China’s military strategy from the mid-twentieth century to today.

Author: M. Taylor Fravel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691210339

Category: History

Page: 396

View: 360

What changes in China’s modern defense policy reveal about military organizations and strategy Active Defense offers the first systematic look at China’s military strategy from the mid-twentieth century to today. Exploring the range and intensity of threats that China has faced, M. Taylor Fravel illuminates the nation’s past and present military goals, and offers a rich set of cases for deepening the study of how and why states alter their defense policies.
Categories: History

When Proliferation Causes Peace

When Proliferation Causes Peace

Fravel, Strong Borders, Secure Nation, 202; Kuisong, “Sino-Soviet Border Clash”;
Goldstein, “Return to Zhenbao Island”; Gurtov and Hwang, China under Threat;
and Robinson, “Sino-Soviet Border Conflict.” 127. Gelman, Soviet Far East ...

Author: Michael D. Cohen

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 9781626164963

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 184

Does state acquisition of nuclear weapons lead to stability and peace or instability and crises? This is one of the great debates in international relations scholarship. Michael D. Cohen argues that nuclear weapons acquisition often does dangerously embolden the acquiring state to undertake coercion and aggression, but that this behavior moderates over time as leaders learn the dangers and limitations of nuclear coercion. This book examines the historical cases of the Soviet Union and Pakistan in depth and also looks at mini-cases involving the United States, China, and India. This book broadens our understanding of how leaders and states behave when they acquire nuclear weapons and is important reading for scholars and students of international relations, security studies, and political psychology.
Categories: Political Science

China s Policy towards the South China Sea

China s Policy towards the South China Sea

31 M. Taylor Fravel, Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in
China's Territorial Disputes (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008),
280. 32 Beijing Review, January 18, 1974, 3. 33 Zhenhua Han, ed., Collection of
 ...

Author: Lingqun Li

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351657365

Category: History

Page: 254

View: 473

This book provides an explanation of Chinese policy towards the South China Sea, and argues that this has been sculpted by the changing dynamics of the law of the sea in conjunction with regional geopolitical flux. The past few decades have witnessed a bifurcated trend in China’s management of territorial disputes. Over the years, while China gradually calmed and settled most land-border disputes with its neighbors, disputes on the ocean frontier continued to simmer in a seething cauldron. China's Policy towards the South China Sea attributes the distinctive path of China’s approach to maritime disputes to a unique factor – the law of the sea (LOS) as the "rules of the road" in the ocean. By deconstructing the concept of "sovereignty" and treating the LOS as an evolving regime, the book examines how the changing dynamics of the LOS regime have complicated and reshaped the nature and content of sovereign disputes in the ocean regime as well as the options of settlement. Applying the findings to the South China Sea case, the author traces the learning curve on which China has embarked to comprehend the complexity of the dispute accordingly and finds that it is the dynamic interaction of the law of the sea regime and the geopolitical conditions that has driven the evolution of China’s South China Sea policy. This book will be of great interest to students of Chinese and Asian politics, international law, international relations and security studies.
Categories: History

China

China

Maps of the Century of National Humiliation, 86; also see Zhang Haipeng,
Zhongguo jindaishigao dituji [Atlas of ... M. Taylor Fravel, Strong Borders, Secure
Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes (Princeton, NJ: ...

Author: William A. Callahan

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191609503

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 453

The rise of China presents a long-term challenge to the world not only economically, but politically and culturally. Callahan meets this challenge in China: The Pessoptimist Nation by using new Chinese sources and innovative analysis to see how Chinese people understand their new place in the world. To chart the trajectory of its rise, the book shifts from examining China's national interests to exploring its national aesthetic. Rather than answering the standard social science question "what is China?" with statistics of economic and military power, this book asks "when, where, and who is China?" to explore the soft power dynamics of China's identity politics. China: The Pessoptimist Nation shows how the heart of Chinese foreign policy is not a security dilemma, but an identity dilemma. Through careful analysis, Callahan charts how Chinese identity emerges through the interplay of positive and negative feelings in a dynamic that intertwines China's domestic and international politics. China thus is the pessoptimist nation where national security is closely linked to nationalist insecurities. Callahan concludes that this interactive view of China's pessoptimist identity means that we need to rethink the role of the state and public opinion in Beijing's foreign policy-making.
Categories: History

Security and Profit in China s Energy Policy

Security and Profit in China   s Energy Policy

On overseas bases, see “China's National Defense White Paper,” issued by the
Information Office of the State Council. Taylor Fravel, Strong Borders, Secure
Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes (Princeton, N.J.: ...

Author: Øystein Tunsjø

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231535434

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 876

China has developed sophisticated hedging strategies to insure against risks in the international petroleum market. It has managed a growing net oil import gap and supply disruptions by maintaining a favorable energy mix, pursuing overseas equity oil production, building a state-owned tanker fleet and strategic petroleum reserve, establishing cross-border pipelines, and diversifying its energy resources and routes. Though it cannot be "secured," China's energy security can be "insured" by marrying government concern with commercial initiatives. This book comprehensively analyzes China's domestic, global, maritime, and continental petroleum strategies and policies, establishing a new theoretical framework that captures the interrelationship between security and profit. Arguing that hedging is central to China's energy-security policy, this volume links government concerns about security of supply to energy companies' search for profits, and by drawing important distinctions between threats and risks, peacetime and wartime contingencies, and pipeline and seaborne energy-supply routes, the study shifts scholarly focus away from securing and toward insuring an adequate oil supply and from controlling toward managing any disruptions to the sea lines of communication. The book is the most detailed and accurate look to date at how China has hedged its energy bets and how its behavior fits a hedging pattern.
Categories: Political Science

The China Pakistan Axis

The China Pakistan Axis

Fravel, Taylor M., Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in
China's Territorial Disputes, New Jersey: ... for Assured Retaliation: The Evolution
of Chinese Nuclear Strategy and Force Structure”, International Security, Vol.

Author: Andrew Small

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190257576

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 667

The Beijing-Islamabad axis plays a central role in Asia's geopolitics, from India's rise to the prospects for a post-American Afghanistan, from the threat of nuclear terrorism to the continent's new map of mines, ports and pipelines. China is Pakistan's great economic hope and its most trusted military partner; Pakistan is the battleground for China's encounters with Islamic militancy and the heart of its efforts to counter-balance the emerging US-India partnership. For decades, each country has been the other's only 'all-weather' friend. Yet the relationship is still little understood. The wildest claims about it are widely believed, while many of its most dramatic developments are hid- den from the public eye. This book sets out the recent history of Sino-Pakistani ties and their ramifications for the West, for India, for Afghanistan, and for Asia as a whole. It tells the stories behind some of its most sensitive aspects, including Beijing's support for Pakistan's nuclear program, China's dealings with the Taliban, and the Chinese military's planning for crises in Pakistan. It describes a relationship increasingly shaped by Pakistan's internal strife, and the dilemmas China faces between the need for regional stability and the imperative for strategic competition with India and the USA.
Categories: Political Science

Beijing s Power and China s Borders

Beijing s Power and China s Borders

All pursue a form of international history that is rooted in specific places but
transcends current national boundaries. Here, we confront the borders
themselves. We are hardly the first to do so. In Strong Borders, Secure Nation:
Cooperation and ...

Author: Bruce Elleman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317515654

Category: History

Page: 392

View: 836

China shares borders with 20 other countries. Each of these neighbors has its own national interests, and in some cases, these include territorial and maritime jurisdictional claims in places that China also claims. Most of these 20 countries have had a history of border conflicts with China; some of them never amicably settled. This book brings together some of the foremost historians, geographers, political scientists, and legal scholars on modern Asia to examine each of China's twenty land or sea borders.
Categories: History

Collateral Damage

Collateral Damage

M. Taylor Fravel, Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in
China's Territorial Disputes (Princeton: Princeton University Press, ... “External
balancing” refers to efforts to increase its security by cooperating with other states
.

Author: Nicholas Khoo

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231521635

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 127

Although the Chinese and the Vietnamese were Cold War allies in wars against the French and the Americans, their alliance collapsed and they ultimately fought a war against each other in 1979. More than thirty years later the fundamental cause of the alliance's termination remains contested among historians, international relations theorists, and Asian studies specialists. Nicholas Khoo brings fresh perspective to this debate. Using Chinese-language materials released since the end of the Cold War, Khoo revises existing explanations for the termination of China's alliance with Vietnam, arguing that Vietnamese cooperation with China's Cold War adversary, the Soviet Union, was the necessary and sufficient cause for the alliance's termination. He finds alternative explanations to be less persuasive. These emphasize nonmaterial causes, such as ideology and culture, or reference issues within the Sino-Vietnamese relationship, such as land and border disputes, Vietnam's treatment of its ethnic Chinese minority, and Vietnam's attempt to establish a sphere of influence over Cambodia and Laos. Khoo also adds to the debate over the relevance of realist theory in interpreting China's international behavior during both the Cold War and post-Cold War eras. While others see China as a social state driven by nonmaterial processes, Khoo makes the case for viewing China as a quintessential neorealist state. From this perspective, the focus of neorealist theory on security threats from materially stronger powers explains China's foreign policy not only toward the Soviet Union but also in relation to its Vietnamese allies.
Categories: History

The International Ambitions of Mao and Nehru

The International Ambitions of Mao and Nehru

Mao Zedong, June 16, 1965 In the preceding chapter, we saw how Mao's strong
sense of martial efficacy, and weak sense of moral efficacy, ... 1 For recent
summaries of these three crises, see Fravel, Strong Borders, Secure Nation, 233
–52.

Author: Andrew Kennedy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139501934

Category: Political Science

Page:

View: 375

Why do leaders sometimes challenge, rather than accept, the international structures that surround their states? In The International Ambitions of Mao and Nehru, Andrew Kennedy answers this question through in-depth studies of Chinese foreign policy under Mao Zedong and Indian foreign policy under Jawaharlal Nehru. Drawing on international relations theory and psychological research, Kennedy offers a new theoretical explanation for bold leadership in foreign policy, one that stresses the beliefs that leaders develop about the 'national efficacy' of their states. He shows how this approach illuminates several of Mao and Nehru's most important military and diplomatic decisions, drawing on archival evidence and primary source materials from China, India, the United States and the United Kingdom. A rare blend of theoretical innovation and historical scholarship, The International Ambitions of Mao and Nehru is a fascinating portrait of how foreign policy decisions are made.
Categories: Political Science

Muslim Trader Nomad Spy

Muslim  Trader  Nomad  Spy

Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial
Disputes. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008. Gaddis, John. We Now
Know: Rethinking Cold War History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Garver ...

Author: Sulmaan Wasif Khan

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 9781469621111

Category: History

Page: 216

View: 258

In 1959, the Dalai Lama fled Lhasa, leaving the People's Republic of China with a crisis on its Tibetan frontier. Sulmaan Wasif Khan tells the story of the PRC's response to that crisis and, in doing so, brings to life an extraordinary cast of characters: Chinese diplomats appalled by sky burials, Guomindang spies working with Tibetans in Nepal, traders carrying salt across the Himalayas, and Tibetan Muslims rioting in Lhasa. What Chinese policymakers confronted in Tibet, Khan argues, was not a "third world" but a "fourth world" problem: Beijing was dealing with peoples whose ways were defined by statelessness. As it sought to tighten control over the restive borderlands, Mao's China moved from a lighter hand to a harder, heavier imperial structure. That change triggered long-lasting shifts in Chinese foreign policy. Moving from capital cities to far-flung mountain villages, from top diplomats to nomads crossing disputed boundaries in search of pasture, this book shows Cold War China as it has never been seen before and reveals the deep influence of the Tibetan crisis on the political fabric of present-day China.
Categories: History

The Cold War and After

The Cold War and After

... Dynastic Empires, and International Change by Daniel H. Nexon Strong
Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes
by M. Taylor Fravel The Sino-Soviet Split: Cold War in the Communist World by
Lorenz ...

Author: Marc Trachtenberg

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691152035

Category: History

Page: 317

View: 406

What makes for war or for a stable international system? Are there general principles that should govern foreign policy? In The Cold War and After, Marc Trachtenberg, a leading historian of international relations, explores how historical work can throw light on these questions. The essays in this book deal with specific problems--with such matters as nuclear strategy and U.S.-European relations. But Trachtenberg's main goal is to show how in practice a certain type of scholarly work can be done. He demonstrates how, in studying international politics, the conceptual and empirical sides of the analysis can be made to connect with each other, and how historical, theoretical, and even policy issues can be tied together in an intellectually respectable way. These essays address a wide variety of topics, from theoretical and policy issues, such as the question of preventive war and the problem of international order, to more historical subjects--for example, American policy on Eastern Europe in 1945 and Franco-American relations during the Nixon-Pompidou period. But in each case the aim is to show how a theoretical perspective can be brought to bear on the analysis of historical issues, and how historical analysis can shed light on basic conceptual problems.
Categories: History

Building Strong Nations

Building Strong Nations

Nation. Building. The term nation building draws substance from many
perspectives. However, to the best of my knowledge, it has not been ... and
disappearance of nations worldwide, and how do we build strong nations that are
robust and secure locally, regionally, and internationally? ... At worst, they conflict
and disagree and sometimes build borders instead of bridges between islands of
knowledge.

Author: Professor Eran Vigoda-Gadot

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 9781409498957

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 648

In the face of global challenges and changes – some may even say because of them – one major dilemma looms large for citizens and leaders worldwide: how can we ensure that our countries address these challenges successfully? This book demonstrates that the answer can be found in a better match between the nature of modern bureaucracy and the spirit of modern democracy, as well as by improving methods and ideas for what the author terms 'cleaver governance' and better governability. Moreover, it suggests potential directions for improving governability and public management against the backdrop of the tension between bureaucracy and democracy that has given rise to increasing mistrust of and lack of confidence in public institutions. Building Strong Nations enriches the discussion about moving modern nations forward despite major problems such as the clash of ideologies, the overburdening of and expectations from public administration, and the growing instability in world economics and international relations.
Categories: Political Science

The Contested Politics of Mobility

The Contested Politics of Mobility

What has basically happened is that the border, as a regime of security and
immigration control (Cunningham 2009), has been ... This text places a strong
emphasis on enhancing ... Like border policing, the raid is a practice that seeks to
securitize the nation through the abjection and exclusion of individuals and
populations ...

Author: Vicki Squire

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136887321

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 664

Irregular migration has emerged as an issue of intensive political debate and governmental practice over recent years. Critically intervening in debates around the governing of irregular migration, The Contested Politics of Mobility explores the politics of mobility through what is defined as an ‘analytic of irregularity’. It brings together authors who address issues of mobility and irregularity from a range of distinct perspectives, to focus on the politics of control as well as the politics of migration. The volume develops an account of irregularity as a produced, ambivalent and contested socio-political condition, showing how this is activated through wide-ranging ‘borderzones’ that pull between migration and control. Covering cases from across contemporary North America and Europe and examining a range of control mechanisms, such as biometrics, deportation and workplace raiding, the volume refuses the term ‘illegal’ to describe movements of people across borders. In so doing, it highlights the complexity of relations between different regions and between a politics of migration and a politics control, and makes a timely intervention in the intersecting fields of critical citizenship, migration and security studies. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of politics, international relations, sociology, migration and law.
Categories: Political Science

National Security and International Environmental Cooperation in the Arctic the Case of the Northern Sea Route

National Security and International Environmental Cooperation in the Arctic     the Case of the Northern Sea Route

According to one observer this should imply a new security role for provinces and
interregional institutions in that the ... Even though they do not struggle for a
sovereign state they sometimes speak of Sopmi as their homeland cutting across
well-defined national borders in the North. ... In this way the Sami people have a
strong urge to secure environmental sustainability and actually to pool resources
with ...

Author: Willy Østreng

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401147606

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 369

View: 553

The basic objective of this report is to place the debate about the future of the Northern Sea Route into the larger picture of Arctic politics and the emerging agenda of the Arctic as a developing region in international society. National security and international environmental cooperation, are the objects of study employed, both separately and in various conceptual combinations, to realize this purpose. To help me in this, I was privileged to draw on the profound expertise of my highly esteemed co-authors, Professor Franklyn Griffiths at the University of Toronto and Senior Researchers at IMEMO in Moscow: Raphael Vartanov, Alexei Roginko and Alexander Kolossov. To their cooperative spirit, friendship and solid contributions to this report, ( am deeply indebted. The report is the result of multiple contributions, both in terms of substance and funding, extending far beyond the inputs of the team of authors. The professional input and thorough work 'behind the scene' done by Liv Astrid Sverdrup, Researcher at FNI at an early stage of the project, has been invaluable. Senior Consultant Kjell Moe at the Norwegian Polar Institute also provided valuable comments and improvements to the biological parts of the Introductory chapter, whilst Senior Consultant Ann Skarstad at FNI, worked wonders with the language for those of us not having English as our mother tongue. Claes Lykke Ragner, Deputy head of the (NSROP secretariat, and Dr.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Holocaust Israel and Canadian Protestant Churches

Holocaust  Israel  and Canadian Protestant Churches

Christians realized that the only guard against a repetition of mass destruction
was a strong Israeli nation with secure borders. A second claim was a slowly
mounting sympathy for the Arab Palestinians when they in turn were cast in the
role of ...

Author: Haim Genizi

Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP

ISBN: 9780773570399

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 536

Genizi pays particular attention to the controversy surrounding A.C. Forrest, editor of the influential United Church Observer, which constantly criticized Israel's policies and strongly supported the Palestinian cause, a position that led to a serious dispute with the Canadian Jewish community. Genizi also deals with the complications and ambiguities of the geopolitics of the Middle East and examines the dilemmas they pose for both the Christian and the Jewish conscience. The conflict over resolutions condemning Israel for accepting apartheid and maintaining systematic racial cleansing, adopted in the international conference on racism in Durban, South Africa, in late 2001, shows how explosive the controversy over the Israel-Palestinian crisis remains.
Categories: History

Proceedings of the National Convention to Secure the Religious Amendment of the Constitution of the United States

Proceedings of the National Convention to Secure the Religious Amendment of the Constitution of the United States

Held in Pittsburg, February 4, 5, 1874 : with an Account of the Origin and
Progress of the Movement National Reform Association (U.S.) ... it had clear and
strong expression of its Christian character down to the time of its organization
under the present Constitution . ... on from victory to victory , until the rebellion
was crushed and the authority of the nation was acknowledged throughout all its
borders .

Author: National Reform Association (U.S.)

Publisher:

ISBN: HARVARD:HN4T3E

Category: Church and state

Page: 103

View: 639

Categories: Church and state

Foundations of Homeland Security

Foundations of Homeland Security

A secureAmerica,a confident public, and a strong and resilient society and
economy. ... We will lead the unified national effort to secure America. ... Wewill
secureournational borders while welcoming lawful immigrants, visitors, and trade
.

Author: Martin J. Alperen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470934603

Category: Political Science

Page: 376

View: 974

This book is the complete guide to understanding the structure of homeland security – its underlying law and policy. Created from a broad and in depth, yet edited collection of statutes, policy papers, presidential directives, and other documents, it cultivates a detailed understanding of the foundations of homeland security. It is arranged in a topic-by-topic format structured to include only the documents and statues that affect a particular subject, making for much easier understanding. Thus, the chapter on FEMA contains only the portions of the statutes and other documents that relate to FEMA. There are twenty-five topic areas. It contains hundreds of end notes, references, and suggestions for further study. This book offers important legal guidance that students, law enforcement officers, lawyers, and other homeland security professionals need to accurately interpret, understand, and apply homeland security policy. The Introduction provides an in-depth overview of the subject of homeland security and includes a discussion of what is homeland security, definitions of homeland security and terrorism, what is homeland security law, its development, and what is a homeland security curriculum. There are contributing chapters about homeland security in Europe, and homeland security in China and Japan.
Categories: Political Science

The Congressional globe0

  The Congressional globe0

I would have the people more contented and prosperous, and, growing daily
stronger in their devotion to their country ... or borders secure to commerce, as
well their own as that of all other nations, give us more security upon the seas
than the ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: BSB:BSB11180369

Category:

Page:

View: 736

Categories: