Physical Activity Across the Lifespan

Physical Activity Across the Lifespan

Indeed, there is correlational evidence that young people's academic
performance increases with physical activity. There is even the interesting
suggestion that physical exercise might aid in development of frontal areas of the
brain whose ...

Author: Aleta L. Meyer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461436065

Category: Medical

Page: 276

View: 916

The statistics are disturbing: steadily rising numbers of sedentary overweight children and obese teens, and a generation looking at a shorter life expectancy than their parents’. But while it may be obvious that physical fitness benefits both the mind and body, a growing research base is supplying evidence of why this is so, and how these benefits may be reproduced in greater numbers. Physical Activity Across the Lifespan makes a clear, scientific case for exercise, sports, and an active lifestyle in preventing illness and establishing lifetime health habits at both the individual and the population levels. The book focuses on key aspects of physical/mental well-being—weight, mood, and self-regulation—and the role of physical activity in public health and school-based interventions targeting these areas. Contributors review definitional and measurement issues salient to understanding what physical activity is, to analyzing benefits of participation, and to implementing effective interventions. Also addressed are limitations of current research, steps needed to continue building the field, and emerging therapeutic possibilities for activity, such as the role of rough and tumble play in preventing ADHD. Included in the coverage: Physical activity, cognition, and school performance. The influence of social and built environments on physical activity in middle-aged and older adults. Preventing and treating obesity through physical activity. Physical activity in preventing drug use and treating chemical dependence. Antidepressant properties of physical activity. Schools as a foundation for physical activity and an active lifestyle. Physical activity as an adjunct or booster to existing interventions. Physical Activity Across the Lifespan is an innovative text for researchers and practitioners in various disciplines including health promotion/disease prevention, child and school psychology, education, health psychology, and public health, as well as program developers and policymakers in these areas.
Categories: Medical

Sport and Physical Activity across the Lifespan

Sport and Physical Activity across the Lifespan

Consistent with a key theme of this edited collection, Carr et al. provide evidence
that well-intended policies and programmes, such as the promotion of sport and
physical activity across the lifespan, can be hijacked in practice and have ...

Author: Rylee A. Dionigi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137485625

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 362

View: 490

This edited collection problematizes trajectories of health promotion across the lifespan. It provides a distinctive critical social science perspective of the various directions taken by dominant policies in their approach to promoting sport for all ages. It offers an array of theoretical and methodologically diverse perspectives on this topic, and highlights the intersections between different life stages and social, economic and cultural factors in the developed world, including class, gender, ability, family dynamics and/or race. Sport and Physical Activity across the Lifespan critically explores dominant policies of age-focussed sport promotion in order to highlight its implications within the context of particular life stages as they intersect with social, cultural and economic factors. This includes an examination of organised sport for pre-schoolers; ‘at-risk’ youth sport programmes; and the creation of sporting sub-cultures within the mid-life ‘market’. This book will be of interest to those wanting to learning more about how age and life stages affect the way people think about and participate in sport, and to better understand the impacts of sport across the lifespan.
Categories: Sports & Recreation

Physical Activity Self Regulation and Executive Control Across the Lifespan

Physical Activity  Self Regulation  and Executive Control Across the Lifespan

Letter cancellation performance across the adult life span. Clin. Neuropsychol. 15
, 521–530. doi:10.1076/clin.15.4.521.1881 van der Bij, A. K., Laurant, M. G., and
Wensing, M. (2002). Effectiveness of physical activity interventions for older ...

Author: Sean P. Mullen

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889197484

Category:

Page:

View: 918

There is overwhelming evidence linking increased physical activity with positive changes in cognitive functioning and brain health. Much of what we know about these interrelationships comes from aerobic exercise training studies with older adults and children. This literature has paved the way for the neuroscientific investigation of mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced cognitive and brain health enhancement, a list that ranges from molecular changes to systemic changes in executive control and neural connectivity. A new perspective has also emerged that aims to understand executive control processes that may underlie the regulation of health behavior. In accordance with this view, physical activity falls under the umbrella of health behaviors that require a substantial amount of executive control. Executive control is a limited resource, and the aging process depletes this resource. People who regularly exercise are said to have higher “self-regulatory control”—planning, goal-shielding and impulse control—than irregular exercisers. The successful maintenance of physical activity participation in lieu of daily cognitive stressors likely reflects an adaptive resistance to control failures. Indeed, a handful of studies have shown the relationship between greater executive control and subsequently higher levels of physical activity. However, little is known about the neural correlates of physical activity adherence or sedentary behavior, with the view that neurocognitive factors have an antecedent and reciprocal influence on these behaviors. No research has focused on the brain networks responsible for the self-regulation of physical activity, which likely overlaps with structures and functions playing critical roles in the regulation of other health behaviors. Interdisciplinary investigations are needed to explain the extent to which physical activity self-regulation and self-regulatory failure is dependent upon, or under the influence of executive control processes and brain networks. Understanding the degree to which self-regulatory resources may be enhanced, restored, and trained will have enormous implications for basic science and applied fields. It is also of great import to understand whether or not physical activity self-regulation is a domain-specific behavior associated with specific brain networks, or to determine the extent to which regulatory network-sharing occurs. The aim of this Frontiers Research Topic is to curate contributions from researchers in social and cognitive neurosciences and related fields, whose work involves the study of physical activity behavior, self-regulation and executive control. For this Research Topic, we, therefore, solicit reviews, original research articles, and opinion papers, which draw theoretical or empirical connections related to sustained physical activity behavior, self-regulatory strategies, cognitive performance, and brain structure and function. While focusing on work in the neurosciences, this Research Topic also welcomes contributions in the form of behavioral studies, psychophysiological investigations, and methodological innovations. This Frontiers Research Topic will carve out new directions for the fields of exercise, cognitive, and social neurosciences. We hope you will consider submitting your work.
Categories:

Disability in Basic Life Activities Across the Life Span

Disability in Basic Life Activities Across the Life Span

Another item provides a summary measure for adults of the frequency of need for
help at home . The item does not apply to children . At all ages , 52 percent of
adults needing help in basic physical activities state that another person must be
at ...

Author: Mitchell P. LaPlante

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015022573342

Category: Chronic diseases

Page: 42

View: 793

Categories: Chronic diseases

Biological Measures of Human Experience across the Lifespan

Biological Measures of Human Experience across the Lifespan

Katzmarzyk, P. T., Malina, R. M., Song, T. M. K., & Bouchard, C. (1998). Physical
activity and health-related fitness in youth: A multivariate analysis. Medicine and
Science in Sports and Exercise, 30, 709–714. Klesges, L. M., Baranowski, T., ...

Author: Lynnette Leidy Sievert

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319441030

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 529

This volume explores methods used by social scientists and human biologists to understand fundamental aspects of human experience. It is organized by stages of the human lifespan: beginnings, adulthood, and aging. Explored are particular kinds of experiences - including pain, stress, activity levels, sleep quality, memory, and menopausal hot flashes - that have traditionally relied upon self-reports, but are subject to inter-individual differences in self-awareness or culture-based expectations. The volume also examines other ways in which normally “invisible” phenomena can be made visible, such as the caloric content of foods, blood pressure, fecundity, growth, nutritional status, genotypes, and bone health. All of the chapters in this book address the means by which social scientists and human biologists measure subjective and objective experience.
Categories: Social Science

Physical Activity and Public Health Practice

Physical Activity and Public Health Practice

This volume catalogs the latest research and provides a window into future possibilities for creating healthier communities.

Author: Barbara E. Ainsworth

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439849514

Category: Medical

Page: 371

View: 809

Physical activity remains a critical area of research as we consider cost-effective measures for lowering the chronic disease epidemic worldwide. In our increasingly automated society, many adults and children are not active at health-enhancing levels. In Physical Activity and Public Health Practice, a panel of respected researchers summarizes essential topics in physical activity and community health and guides public health practitioners and researchers in understanding the positive impact that physical activity has on a host of disease states. Focusing on the benefits of physical activity across the human lifespan with emphasis on primary and secondary prevention of chronic diseases and conditions, the book examines: Historical insights into physical activity and health Public health philosophy and approaches to understanding health concerns Application of public health strategies to increase physical activity in youth, adults, and older adults Known and effective policy and environmental approaches applied to various settings, including schools, worksites, and the community The role of physical activity on growth and development and in relation to obesity Methods for measuring physical fitness and applying U.S. Physical Activity Guidelines for exercise prescriptions How to promote physical activity among hard-to-reach populations A goal of all physical activity health promotion advocates is to increase the opportunity for citizens to live active, healthy lives. Understanding the immense role physical activity plays in human health is critical to shaping programs and policies that will benefit the population. This volume catalogs the latest research and provides a window into future possibilities for creating healthier communities.
Categories: Medical

Educating the Student Body

Educating the Student Body

Educating the Student Body makes recommendations about approaches for strengthening and improving programs and policies for physical activity and physical education in the school environment.

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309283137

Category: Medical

Page: 502

View: 371

Physical inactivity is a key determinant of health across the lifespan. A lack of activity increases the risk of heart disease, colon and breast cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoporosis, anxiety and depression and others diseases. Emerging literature has suggested that in terms of mortality, the global population health burden of physical inactivity approaches that of cigarette smoking. The prevalence and substantial disease risk associated with physical inactivity has been described as a pandemic. The prevalence, health impact, and evidence of changeability all have resulted in calls for action to increase physical activity across the lifespan. In response to the need to find ways to make physical activity a health priority for youth, the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Physical Activity and Physical Education in the School Environment was formed. Its purpose was to review the current status of physical activity and physical education in the school environment, including before, during, and after school, and examine the influences of physical activity and physical education on the short and long term physical, cognitive and brain, and psychosocial health and development of children and adolescents. Educating the Student Body makes recommendations about approaches for strengthening and improving programs and policies for physical activity and physical education in the school environment. This report lays out a set of guiding principles to guide its work on these tasks. These included: recognizing the benefits of instilling life-long physical activity habits in children; the value of using systems thinking in improving physical activity and physical education in the school environment; the recognition of current disparities in opportunities and the need to achieve equity in physical activity and physical education; the importance of considering all types of school environments; the need to take into consideration the diversity of students as recommendations are developed. This report will be of interest to local and national policymakers, school officials, teachers, and the education community, researchers, professional organizations, and parents interested in physical activity, physical education, and health for school-aged children and adolescents.
Categories: Medical

Counseling Across the Lifespan

Counseling Across the Lifespan

ACTIVITIES THAT PROMOTE HEALTHY AGING Primary health promotion and
disease prevention goals for older adults ... This includes promoting regular
exercise , good nutrition , health and mental health screens , and the social
support ...

Author: Cindy L Juntunen

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 0761923950

Category: Psychology

Page: 495

View: 966

Counseling Across the Lifespan expands the perimeters of counseling with its emphasis on preventive techniques for adjustment problems in the lifespan of a normal individual. This cogent work focuses on counseling intervention strategies from the unique perspective of an individual’s lifespan, placing techniques in the proper development context. By concentrating on life stages—from childhood through old age—the authors identify the nature and origin of various psychological issues such as self-identity and healthy lifestyle development in adolescents, family violence in young adults, or retirement transitions for older adults. The intervention tools needed to confront these issues are presented through succinct pedagogical features including case examples, checklists for evaluating clients, and exercises.
Categories: Psychology

Lifelong Engagement in Sport and Physical Activity

Lifelong Engagement in Sport and Physical Activity

Participation and Performance across the Lifespan Nicholas L. Holt, Margaret
Talbot ... strong argument for considering persons with disabilitiesin a general
examination of engagementin sport and physical activity across the life span.

Author: Nicholas L. Holt

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136660658

Category: Education

Page: 166

View: 983

Sport and physical activity should now be understood as lifelong activity, beginning in childhood, and accessible to participants of all levels of ability. This book offers an overview of some of the core concerns underlying lifelong engagement in sport and physical activity, encompassing every age and phase of engagement. The book explores key models of engagement from around the world, as well as specific areas of research that will help the reader understand this important topic. In adopting a lifespan approach, the book pays particular attention to sport and physical activity during childhood and adolescence as well as transitions into adulthood, the developmental periods when participation in sport and physical activity are most likely to decline. Understanding more about participation during these early years is important for sustaining participation during adulthood. The book also addresses issues relating to sport and physical activity during adulthood, across a range of different populations, while a final section examines sport and physical activity among older adults, an often overlooked, but growing segment of society in this context. Lifelong Engagement in Sport and Physical Activity is important reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students in teacher education, sport and coaching science, and for health promoters, coaches, teachers and relevant bodies and organizations in sport and education. This book is published in partnership with ICSSPE, and is part of the Perspectives series
Categories: Education

Inclusive Physical Activity

Inclusive Physical Activity

The text includes student-friendly features such as case studies, chapter questions and a problem-based sequence throughout the chapters.

Author: Susan L. Kasser

Publisher: Human Kinetics

ISBN: 9781450401869

Category: Education

Page: 299

View: 199

"Inclusive Physical Activity "is a text and reference for exercise and physical activity practitioners committed to offering optimal physical activity programming to people of differing abilities in school, recreation, sports, and community fitness settings. The updated second edition offers strategies for physical activity programming across the life span, from infancy to adulthood.
Categories: Education

Functional Movement Development Across the Life Span E Book

Functional Movement Development Across the Life Span   E Book

development, motor control, and motor learning, as well as the roles of various
body systems in relation to participation in meaningful functional physical activity.
The ability to function at our best in all activities throughout the life span is a goal
 ...

Author: Donna J. Cech

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9781437715484

Category: Medical

Page: 374

View: 942

Providing a solid foundation in the normal development of functional movement, Functional Movement Development Across the Life Span, 3rd Edition helps you recognize and understand movement disorders and effectively manage patients with abnormal motor function. It begins with coverage of basic theory, motor development and motor control, and evaluation of function, then discusses the body systems contributing to functional movement, and defines functional movement outcomes in terms of age, vital functions, posture and balance, locomotion, prehension, and health and illness. This edition includes more clinical examples and applications, and updates data relating to typical performance on standardized tests of balance. Written by physical therapy experts Donna J. Cech and Suzanne "Tink" Martin, this book provides evidence-based information and tools you need to understand functional movement and manage patients' functional skills throughout the life span. Over 200 illustrations, tables, and special features clarify developmental concepts, address clinical implications, and summarize key points relating to clinical practice. A focus on evidence-based information covers development changes across the life span and how they impact function. A logical, easy-to-read format includes 15 chapters organized into three units covering basics, body systems, and age-related functional outcomes respectively. Expanded integration of ICF (International Classification of Function) aligns learning and critical thinking with current health care models. Additional clinical examples help you apply developmental information to clinical practice. Expanded content on assessment of function now includes discussion of participation level standardized assessments and assessments of quality-of-life scales. More concise information on the normal anatomy and physiology of each body system allows a sharper focus on development changes across the lifespan and how they impact function.
Categories: Medical

Physical Activity and Health

Physical Activity and Health

In the half-century since the Second World War, there has been an explosion of
research and thinking on the needs for, and benefits of, physical activity /
exercise across the lifespan and bodily systems. This knowledge is widely not
being ...

Author: Adrianne E. Hardman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134489190

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 376

View: 684

Physical Activity and Health explains clearly, systematically and in detail the relationships between physical activity, health and disease, and explores the benefits of exercise in the prevention and treatment of health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and cancer. The book includes tables, figures, plates and study aids throughout, and is supported by a companion website at www.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415421980.
Categories: Sports & Recreation

Health Promotion and Wellness

Health Promotion and Wellness

Physical activity has been linked to multiple healthy outcomes such as weight
control, reduced risk for cardiovascular ... with information about physical activity
across the life span, including details on injury prevention and safety strategies.

Author: Cheryl Hawk

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 9781451120233

Category: Medical

Page: 164

View: 848

"Health Promotion and Wellness "is designed to provide health care providers with both the theoretical knowledge and practical skills they need to provide high-quality clinical preventive services. This unique resource is separated into two sections: The first section gives information on risks, ways providers can assess for risk and tools they can use to advise and help patients move forward. The second section is a tool kit with information, resources, tools and other items that can help the clinician provide evidence-based, patient-centered information to their patients.This accessible reference provide readers with the basic elements necessary to help their patients change their health behavior related to the most prevalent risk factors, and to serve as a springboard to keep pace with the latest evidence arising in the applied science of wellness, prevention and health promotion.
Categories: Medical

Adapted Physical Activity Recreation and Sport

Adapted Physical Activity  Recreation  and Sport

Offering the most comprehensive coverage available and broadening the audience scope to include students majoring in exercise science or coaching who are preparing for nonteaching positions, this new edition features a lifespan, cross ...

Author: Claudine Sherrill

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Humanities, Social Sciences & World Languages

ISBN: UVA:X004768649

Category: Physical education for children with disabilities

Page: 783

View: 363

Offering the most comprehensive coverage available and broadening the audience scope to include students majoring in exercise science or coaching who are preparing for nonteaching positions, this new edition features a lifespan, cross-disciplinary approach valuable for both teaching and non-teaching professionals. Adapted Physical Activity, Recreation, and Sport emphasizes attitude change, inclusion, and psychosocial perspectives for understanding individual differences.
Categories: Physical education for children with disabilities

Fit for Two

Fit for Two

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:155841260

Category: Pregnancy

Page: 23

View: 523

Categories: Pregnancy

Vertigo and Dizziness across the Lifespan An Issue of Otolaryngologic Clinics E Book

Vertigo and Dizziness across the Lifespan  An Issue of Otolaryngologic Clinics   E Book

Finally, for patients older than 60 years, the estimated prevalence was 3.4%.1
BPPV ACROSS THE LIFESPAN There are ... case reports by Giacomini and
colleagues12 described 9 patients who developed BPPV after intense physical
activity.

Author: Bradley W. Kesser

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9781455709724

Category: Medical

Page: 168

View: 279

Dizziness comes in many forms in each age group – some specific to an age group (e.g. benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood) while others span the age spectrum (e.g., migraine-associated vertigo). This content organizes evaluation and management of the dizzy patient by age to bring a fresh perspective to seeing these often difficult patients. The pediatric section begins with a review of vestibular embryology and physiology and moves toward a comprehensive discussion of methods – both bedside and in the vestibular lab - to evaluate the child with dizziness, or “clumsiness,” concluding with an exploration of the differential diagnosis of dizziness and relevant findings. Dizziness in the adolescent points to migraine headache as a common cause, enumerates treatment strategies for migraine-associated vertigo, and offers guidelines for when to image the adolescent with dizziness. Adult dizziness is more a compilation of the relevant diagnoses, but the section starts with dizziness that can affect young adults – especially members of our Armed Forces fighting overseas – traumatic brain injury/blast injury. This content also has relevance for patients in motor vehicle accidents and head injury patients. Medicolegal aspects of evaluation and management of dizzy patients are succinctly covered in “Evaluation of Dizziness in the Litigating Patient.” The final chapter in this section, “Other Causes of Dizziness,” provides a very thorough overview of unusual causes of dizziness in the adult population. Dizziness associated with advancing age is quite common and often multifactorial, as is highlighted in the chapter “Dizziness in the Elderly.” A comprehensive review of the posterior cerebral circulation, transient ischemic attacks, and posterior circulation stroke is presented in the chapter, “Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency.” No coverage of dizziness in the elderly is complete without an exposition of polypharmacy and medication effects. Other common diagnoses of dizziness in the elderly are thoughtfully reviewed along with a survey of new and old techniques to rehabilitate the older patient with dizziness or disequilibrium. Patients presenting with dizziness can harbor serious, if not life-threatening, conditions such as stroke, brain abscess, or severe chronic ear disease. At the end of several articles, the reader will find a relevant table – What Not To Miss – a list of clinically significant signs and symptoms not to ignore, or conditions (differential diagnosis) that may masquerade as that discussed in the chapter but critically important that the practitioner should not overlook in the evaluation of the patient. Many articles in this edition start with a clinical scenario so the reader can recognize common presenting symptoms, demographic features, and factors in the medical history that will aid in making the diagnosis.
Categories: Medical

A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing

A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing

Crosssectional associations between occupational and leisuretime sitting,
physical activity and obesity in working adults. Prev Med2012;54:195–200. 27
Sugiyama T, et ... Stability of physical activity across the lifespan. J Health
Psychol 2008 ...

Author: Diana Kuh

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191008184

Category: Medical

Page: 288

View: 206

Healthy ageing has long been a neglected area of epidemiological research as the traditional focus has been on specific chronic diseases of older life. There is a growing consensus from scientists, research funders and policy makers that ageing itself needs to be studied from an interdisciplinary and life course perspective, to inform strategies for reducing the societal and individual costs of an ageing population. A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing is a synthesis of life course perspectives in epidemiology and interdisciplinary perspectives in ageing research. It brings together expert investigators of maturing birth cohort and ageing studies, cross-cutting methodologists, and authorities in ageing research and knowledge transfer from across the world in one wide-ranging volume. Contributors discuss how aspects of healthy ageing are conceptualised, defined and measured; relate to each other; change across life; and are influenced by biological, psychological and social factors operating from early life onwards. They identify research gaps, and suggest how evidence from observational studies can be strengthened through improved study design and longitudinal analysis, thereby increasing the research contribution to practice or policy change. The book considers how we might delay or slow down the progressive, generalised impairment of function that occurs at the individual, body system and cellular levels, as people grow older. It also considers the determinants of wellbeing in older people, including personal fulfilment, positive emotions and social relationships. Broad in scope, discussing topics from genetics to psychological and social wellbeing, A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing is a key resource for epidemiologists, social scientists, clinicians, public health physicians, policy makers and practitioners with a research interest in healthy ageing.
Categories: Medical

Physical Activity Assessments for Health related Research

Physical Activity Assessments for Health related Research

Preface PART I Introduction and Overview of Physical Activity Assessments
Introduction ... refinements in current surveillance techniques are needed to
better understand population trends in physical activity and patterns across the
lifespan .

Author: Greg Welk

Publisher: Human Kinetics

ISBN: 0736037489

Category: Medical

Page: 269

View: 579

And examples -- References -- Construct validity in physical activity research / Matthew T. Mahar and David A. Rowe -- Definitional stage -- Confirmatory stage -- Theory-testing stage -- Summary -- References -- Physical activity data : odd distributions yield strange answers / Jerry R. Thomas and Katherine T. Thomas -- Overview of the general linear model and rank-order procedures -- Determining whether data are normally distributed -- Application of rank-order procedures -- Data distributions and correlation -- Extensions of GLM rank-order statistical procedures -- Summary -- Endnote -- References -- Equating and linking of physical activity questionnaires / Weimo Zhu -- What is scale equating? -- Equating methods -- Practical issues of scale equating -- Remaining challenges and future research directions -- Summary -- References.
Categories: Medical

Functional Movement Development Across the Life Span

Functional Movement Development Across the Life Span

They contribute to one's agility, power, balance, coordination, and speed during
physical activity. Cardiovascular and respiratory endurance reflect the ability of
the heart, vasculature, and lungs to provide oxygen to working muscle during ...

Author: Donna J. Cech

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9781416065371

Category: Medical

Page: 528

View: 707

The 2nd edition of this expert text emphasizes normal development and function, examining how function is attained and how it can be optimized across the life span. Its logical organization and presentation equips readers with the background and tools needed to understand the components of functional movement. A solid grounding in normal development, including the cellular and systems changes that begin in the embryo and continue throughout life, enables readers to recognize, understand, and appropriately treat abnormal motor function. This new, expanded edition features enhanced content related to development of specific age groups, with a unique focus on the ongoing development of the healthy older adult. Specifically, the chapters dealing with the skeletal system, the cardiovascular and pulmonary system, and the nervous system have been extensively updated and more comprehensively illustrated.
Categories: Medical