Ontology Engineering

Ontology Engineering

This book, motivated by the Ontology 101 tutorial given for many years at what was originally the Semantic Technology Conference (SemTech) and then later from a semester-long university class, is designed to provide the foundations for ...

Author: Elisa F. Kendall

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 9781681733098

Category: Computers

Page: 120

View: 198

Ontologies have become increasingly important as the use of knowledge graphs, machine learning, natural language processing (NLP), and the amount of data generated on a daily basis has exploded. As of 2014, 90% of the data in the digital universe was generated in the two years prior, and the volume of data was projected to grow from 3.2 zettabytes to 40 zettabytes in the next six years. The very real issues that government, research, and commercial organizations are facing in order to sift through this amount of information to support decision-making alone mandate increasing automation. Yet, the data profiling, NLP, and learning algorithms that are ground-zero for data integration, manipulation, and search provide less than satisfactory results unless they utilize terms with unambiguous semantics, such as those found in ontologies and well-formed rule sets. Ontologies can provide a rich "schema" for the knowledge graphs underlying these technologies as well as the terminological and semantic basis for dramatic improvements in results. Many ontology projects fail, however, due at least in part to a lack of discipline in the development process. This book, motivated by the Ontology 101 tutorial given for many years at what was originally the Semantic Technology Conference (SemTech) and then later from a semester-long university class, is designed to provide the foundations for ontology engineering. The book can serve as a course textbook or a primer for all those interested in ontologies.
Categories: Computers

Ontological Engineering

Ontological Engineering

Primary goals of this book are to acquaint students, researchers and developers of information systems with the basic concepts and major issues of Ontological Engineering, as well as to make ontologies more understandable to those computer ...

Author: Asunción Gómez-Pérez

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781852338404

Category: Computers

Page: 404

View: 116

Ontological Engineering refers to the set of activities that concern the ontology development process, the ontology life cycle, the methods and methodologies for building ontologies, and the tool suites and languages that support them. During the last decade, increasing attention has been focused on ontologies and Ontological Engineering. Ontologies are now widely used in Knowledge Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science; in applications related to knowledge management, natural language processing, e-commerce, intelligent integration information, information retrieval, integration of databases, b- informatics, and education; and in new emerging fields like the Semantic Web. Primary goals of this book are to acquaint students, researchers and developers of information systems with the basic concepts and major issues of Ontological Engineering, as well as to make ontologies more understandable to those computer science engineers that integrate ontologies into their information systems. We have paid special attention to the influence that ontologies have on the Semantic Web. Pointers to the Semantic Web appear in all the chapters, but specially in the chapter on ontology languages and tools.
Categories: Computers

An Introduction to Ontology Engineering

An Introduction to Ontology Engineering

An Introduction to Ontology Engineering introduces the student to a comprehensive overview of ontology engineering, and offers hands-on experience that illustrate the theory.

Author: C. Maria Keet

Publisher:

ISBN: 1848902956

Category: Computer software

Page: 344

View: 608

An Introduction to Ontology Engineering introduces the student to a comprehensive overview of ontology engineering, and offers hands-on experience that illustrate the theory. The topics covered include: logic foundations for ontologies with languages and automated reasoning, developing good ontologies with methods and methodologies, the top-down approach with foundational ontologies, and the bottomup approach to extract content from legacy material, and a selection of advanced topics that includes Ontology-Based Data Access, the interaction between ontologies and natural languages, and advanced modelling with fuzzy and temporal ontologies. Each chapter contains review questions and exercises, and descriptions of two group assignments are provided as well. The textbook is aimed at advanced undergraduate/postgraduate level in computer science and could fi t a semester course in ontology engineering or a 2-week intensive course. Domain experts and philosophers may fi nd a subset of the chapters of interest, or work through the chapters in a different order. Maria Keet is an Associate Professor with the Department of Computer Science, University of Cape Town, South Africa. She received her PhD in Computer Science in 2008 at the KRDB Research Centre, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy. Her research focus is on knowledge engineering with ontologies and Ontology, and their interaction with natural language and conceptual data modelling, which has resulted in over 100 peer-reviewed publications. She has developed and taught multiple courses on ontology engineering and related courses at various universities since 2009.
Categories: Computer software

Ontology Engineering

Ontology Engineering

After giving a short description of the ontologies we have developed, we focus on
a set of key issues that we think are important and need to be addressed by the
ontology engineering community. These include ontology evaluation, testing, ...

Author: Valentina Tamma

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319332451

Category: Computers

Page: 183

View: 384

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-workshop proceedings of the 12th OWL: Experiences and Directions Workshop, OWLED 2015, held in Bethlehem, PA, USA, in October 2015, co-located with ISWC 2015, the International Semantic Web Conference. The 18 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 35 initial submissions. Bridging the gap between ontology engineering practices and software engineering, the papers describe reuse methods employed throughout the ontology development cycle; modeling / terminological decisions, alignment and comparison between ontologies, how ontologies are stored, versioned, distributed, and consumed over the Web.
Categories: Computers

Legal Ontology Engineering

Legal Ontology Engineering

The use of a methodological approach to knowledge-based construction, and
thus, to ontology construction, may offer support to “successfully reach their goals
in time” (Sure et al. 2006). An ontology engineering methodology considers, ...

Author: Núria Casellas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400714971

Category: Law

Page: 298

View: 554

Enabling information interoperability, fostering legal knowledge usability and reuse, enhancing legal information search, in short, formalizing the complexity of legal knowledge to enhance legal knowledge management are challenging tasks, for which different solutions and lines of research have been proposed. During the last decade, research and applications based on the use of legal ontologies as a technique to represent legal knowledge has raised a very interesting debate about their capacity and limitations to represent conceptual structures in the legal domain. Making conceptual legal knowledge explicit would support the development of a web of legal knowledge, improve communication, create trust and enable and support open data, e-government and e-democracy activities. Moreover, this explicit knowledge is also relevant to the formalization of software agents and the shaping of virtual institutions and multi-agent systems or environments. This book explores the use of ontologism in legal knowledge representation for semantically-enhanced legal knowledge systems or web-based applications. In it, current methodologies, tools and languages used for ontology development are revised, and the book includes an exhaustive revision of existing ontologies in the legal domain. The development of the Ontology of Professional Judicial Knowledge (OPJK) is presented as a case study.
Categories: Law

Ontology Engineering in a Networked World

Ontology Engineering in a Networked World

Chapter 1 Introduction: Ontology Engineering in a Networked World Mari Carmen
Sua ́rez-Figueroa, Asuncio ́n Go ́mez-Pe ́rez, Enrico Motta, and Aldo Gangemi
Abstract While ontology engineering is rapidly entering the mainstream, expert ...

Author: Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642247934

Category: Computers

Page: 444

View: 112

The Semantic Web is characterized by the existence of a very large number of distributed semantic resources, which together define a network of ontologies. These ontologies in turn are interlinked through a variety of different meta-relationships such as versioning, inclusion, and many more. This scenario is radically different from the relatively narrow contexts in which ontologies have been traditionally developed and applied, and thus calls for new methods and tools to effectively support the development of novel network-oriented semantic applications. This book by Suárez-Figueroa et al. provides the necessary methodological and technological support for the development and use of ontology networks, which ontology developers need in this distributed environment. After an introduction, in its second part the authors describe the NeOn Methodology framework. The book’s third part details the key activities relevant to the ontology engineering life cycle. For each activity, a general introduction, methodological guidelines, and practical examples are provided. The fourth part then presents a detailed overview of the NeOn Toolkit and its plug-ins. Lastly, case studies from the pharmaceutical and the fishery domain round out the work. The book primarily addresses two main audiences: students (and their lecturers) who need a textbook for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses on ontology engineering, and practitioners who need to develop ontologies in particular or Semantic Web-based applications in general. Its educational value is maximized by its structured approach to explaining guidelines and combining them with case studies and numerous examples. The description of the open source NeOn Toolkit provides an additional asset, as it allows readers to easily evaluate and apply the ideas presented.
Categories: Computers

Ontology Engineering Applications in Healthcare and Workforce Management Systems

Ontology Engineering Applications in Healthcare and Workforce Management Systems

Ontology. Engineering. 3.1 Introduction Some ontologies represent domain
knowledge and organise knowledge into a specific structure e.g. hierarchy, graph
, etc. Other ontologies represent formal vocabularies with well-defined axioms
that ...

Author: David E Forbes

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319650128

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 103

View: 942

Looking beyond the communications technology horizon and projecting future competency-specific employment demand, this book presents an evaluation of desirable information systems enhancements by integrating two disparate-domain computer ontologies. It provides readers a fresh solutions approach based on dynamic modeling and methodological contributions to philosophical and assistive communications system development in healthcare, addressing the need for both demand intelligence and practical work environment support. The pace of change in redefining occupation-specific employee resourcing needs is unrelenting and continues to accelerate. And the exponential growth in the demand for healthcare service delivery is correspondingly daunting. As such, the public and private sectors are faced with the challenge of sustaining credible relevant demand intelligence and recruitment practices, while integration, expansion and enrichment of ostensibly unconnected ontologies represent key R&D issues.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Applied Ontology Engineering in Cloud Services Networks and Management Systems

Applied Ontology Engineering in Cloud Services  Networks and Management Systems

3.1 Introduction This chapter reviews basic concepts about ontology engineering,
with the objective of providing a better understanding of building semantic
frameworks using ontologies in the area of telecommunications and particularly ...

Author: Martin Serrano

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461422358

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 190

View: 349

Metadata standards in today’s ICT sector are proliferating at unprecedented levels, while automated information management systems collect and process exponentially increasing quantities of data. With interoperability and knowledge exchange identified as a core challenge in the sector, this book examines the role ontology engineering can play in providing solutions to the problems of information interoperability and linked data. At the same time as introducing basic concepts of ontology engineering, the book discusses methodological approaches to formal representation of data and information models, thus facilitating information interoperability between heterogeneous, complex and distributed communication systems. In doing so, the text advocates the advantages of using ontology engineering in telecommunications systems. In addition, it offers a wealth of guidance and best-practice techniques for instances in which ontology engineering is applied in cloud services, computer networks and management systems. Engineering and computer science professionals (infrastructure architects, software developers, service designers, infrastructure operators, engineers, etc.) are today confronted as never before with the challenge of convergence in software solutions and technology. This book will help them respond creatively to what is sure to be a period of rapid development.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Semi automatic ontology engineering and ontology supported document indexing in a multilingual environment

Semi automatic ontology engineering and ontology supported document indexing in a multilingual environment

This chapter depicts the ontology pruning step in the ontology creation framework
introduced in the previous chapter. I will reason its valuable application within the
framework by presenting an extensive evaluation of the pruning algorithm.

Author: Boris Lauser

Publisher: diplom.de

ISBN: 9783832469054

Category: Computers

Page: 130

View: 520

Inhaltsangabe:Introduction: The management of large amounts of information and knowledge is of ever increasing importance in today s large organisations. With the ongoing ease of supplying information online, especially in corporate intranets and knowledge bases, finding the right information becomes an increasingly difficult task. Today s search tools perform rather poorly in the sense that information access is mostly based on keyword searching or even mere browsing of topic areas. This unfocused approach often leads to undesired results. The following example illustrates the problem more clearly: An agriculture scientist would like to find out which organisation established the Agreement on Agriculture. A simple search for establish Agreement on Agriculture might result in a huge list of documents containing these words, but actually none of them containing the desired result: WTO or World Trade Organisation. The problem becomes even worse if the result searched for only appears in a foreign language document. Semantically annotated documents, i.e. documents that are indexed with ontological terms and concepts instead of simple keywords, provide several advantages. First, the ontological abstraction provides robustness against changes in the document. In the above example, the document representation might change using the term Agricultural Agreement instead of Agreement on Agriculture . However, since the document has been annotated with the ontological semantics, this will not affect the search results. Second, since the ontology used for annotating the document in this example is domain-specific, the semantic meanings and interpretations of keywords are bound to that domain and therefore the retrieval is likely to be more efficient. A term can have several meanings in different domains. By first mapping the keyword to its semantic representation in a specific ontology and using the ontology s linked knowledge structure, a much more focused search approach can be taken. Third, document specific representations no longer affect the search. This is extremely important in the case of multilingual representations. Keywords of several languages are mapped to the same concept in an ontology and are therefore given the same meaning. Multilingual search portals can be established to produce the same results, no matter which language is used for retrieval. An important task in knowledge management facilitating above described search scenario id [...]
Categories: Computers

Ontology Engineering with Ontology Design Patterns Foundations and Applications

Ontology Engineering with Ontology Design Patterns  Foundations and Applications

This book is the very first comprehensive treatment of Ontology Engineering with Ontology Design Patterns. It contains both advanced and introductory material accessible for readers with only a minimal background in ontology modeling.

Author: P. Hitzler

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9781614996767

Category: Computers

Page: 388

View: 621

The use of ontologies for data and knowledge organization has become ubiquitous in many data-intensive and knowledge-driven application areas, in science, industry, and the humanities. At the same time, ontology engineering best practices continue to evolve. In particular, modular ontology modeling based on ontology design patterns is establishing itself as an approach for creating versatile and extendable ontologies for data management and integration. This book is the very first comprehensive treatment of Ontology Engineering with Ontology Design Patterns. It contains both advanced and introductory material accessible for readers with only a minimal background in ontology modeling. Some introductory material is written in the style of tutorials, and specific chapters are devoted to examples and to applications. Other chapters convey the state of the art in research regarding ontology design patterns. The editors and the contributing authors include the leading contributors to the development of ontology-design-pattern-driven ontology engineering.
Categories: Computers

Handbook on Ontologies

Handbook on Ontologies

Ontology Engineering Methodology York Sure1, Steffen Staab2, and Rudi
Studer3 1 SAP Research, CEC Karlsruhe, ... In this chapter we present a
methodology for introducing and maintaining ontology based knowledge
management ...

Author: Steffen Staab

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540926739

Category: Computers

Page: 811

View: 130

An ontology is a formal description of concepts and relationships that can exist for a community of human and/or machine agents. The notion of ontologies is crucial for the purpose of enabling knowledge sharing and reuse. The Handbook on Ontologies provides a comprehensive overview of the current status and future prospectives of the field of ontologies considering ontology languages, ontology engineering methods, example ontologies, infrastructures and technologies for ontologies, and how to bring this all into ontology-based infrastructures and applications that are among the best of their kind. The field of ontologies has tremendously developed and grown in the five years since the first edition of the "Handbook on Ontologies". Therefore, its revision includes 21 completely new chapters as well as a major re-working of 15 chapters transferred to this second edition.
Categories: Computers

Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management

Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management

Crowdsourcing techniques have been shown to provide effective means for
solving a variety of ontology engineering problems. Yet, they are mainly being
used as external means to ontology engineering, without being closely integrated
into ...

Author: Krzysztof Janowicz

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319137049

Category: Computers

Page: 620

View: 120

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management, EKAW 2014, held in Linköping, Sweden, in November 2014. The 24 full papers and 21 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 138 submissions. The papers cover all aspects of eliciting, acquiring, modeling, and managing knowledge, the construction of knowledge-intensive systems and services for the Semantic Web, knowledge management, e-business, natural language processing, intelligent information integration, personal digital assistance systems, and a variety of other related topics.
Categories: Computers

Semantic Web Engineering in the Knowledge Society

Semantic Web Engineering in the Knowledge Society

engineering Inter-Organizational Ontologies The scale of industrial applications
usually spans several organizations and application domains. An appropriate
methodology for ontology engineering in these scenarios therefore has to involve
 ...

Author: Cardoso, Jorge

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781605661131

Category: Computers

Page: 424

View: 318

"This book lays the foundations for understanding the concepts and technologies behind the Semantic Web"--Provided by publisher.
Categories: Computers

Ontologies for Software Engineering and Software Technology

Ontologies for Software Engineering and Software Technology

1.4 Ontological Engineering The ontological engineering field has been subject
to considerable study and research during the last decade. Ontological
engineering refers to the set of activities that concern the ontology development
process, ...

Author: Coral Calero

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540345183

Category: Computers

Page: 340

View: 644

This book covers two applications of ontologies in software engineering and software technology: sharing knowledge of the problem domain and using a common terminology among all stakeholders; and filtering the knowledge when defining models and metamodels. By presenting the advanced use of ontologies in software research and software projects, this book is of benefit to software engineering researchers in both academia and industry.
Categories: Computers

Sentiment Analysis and Ontology Engineering

Sentiment Analysis and Ontology Engineering

The volume involves studies devoted to key issues of sentiment analysis, sentiment models, and ontology engineering. The book is structured into three main parts.

Author: Witold Pedrycz

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319303192

Category: Computers

Page: 456

View: 621

This edited volume provides the reader with a fully updated, in-depth treatise on the emerging principles, conceptual underpinnings, algorithms and practice of Computational Intelligence in the realization of concepts and implementation of models of sentiment analysis and ontology –oriented engineering. The volume involves studies devoted to key issues of sentiment analysis, sentiment models, and ontology engineering. The book is structured into three main parts. The first part offers a comprehensive and prudently structured exposure to the fundamentals of sentiment analysis and natural language processing. The second part consists of studies devoted to the concepts, methodologies, and algorithmic developments elaborating on fuzzy linguistic aggregation to emotion analysis, carrying out interpretability of computational sentiment models, emotion classification, sentiment-oriented information retrieval, a methodology of adaptive dynamics in knowledge acquisition. The third part includes a plethora of applications showing how sentiment analysis and ontologies becomes successfully applied to investment strategies, customer experience management, disaster relief, monitoring in social media, customer review rating prediction, and ontology learning. This book is aimed at a broad audience of researchers and practitioners. Readers involved in intelligent systems, data analysis, Internet engineering, Computational Intelligence, and knowledge-based systems will benefit from the exposure to the subject matter. The book may also serve as a highly useful reference material for graduate students and senior undergraduate students.
Categories: Computers

Theory and Applications of Ontology Computer Applications

Theory and Applications of Ontology  Computer Applications

The engineering part of developing ontologies comprises a complex set of
activities that are conducted during conceptualization, design, implementation
and deployment of ontologies. Ontology engineering covers a whole range of
topics and ...

Author: Roberto Poli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048188474

Category: Philosophy

Page: 576

View: 642

Ontology was once understood to be the philosophical inquiry into the structure of reality: the analysis and categorization of ‘what there is’. Recently, however, a field called ‘ontology’ has become part of the rapidly growing research industry in information technology. The two fields have more in common than just their name. Theory and Applications of Ontology is a two-volume anthology that aims to further an informed discussion about the relationship between ontology in philosophy and ontology in information technology. It fills an important lacuna in cutting-edge research on ontology in both fields, supplying stage-setting overview articles on history and method, presenting directions of current research in either field, and highlighting areas of productive interdisciplinary contact. Theory and Applications of Ontology: Computer Applications presents ontology in ways that philosophers are not likely to find elsewhere. The volume offers an overview of current research in ontology, distinguishing basic conceptual issues, domain applications, general frameworks, and mathematical formalisms. It introduces the reader to current research on frameworks and applications in information technology in ways that are sure to invite reflection and constructive responses from ontologists in philosophy.
Categories: Philosophy

Ontology Learning for the Semantic Web

Ontology Learning for the Semantic Web

Ontology Learning for the Semantic Web explores techniques for applying knowledge discovery techniques to different web data sources (such as HTML documents, dictionaries, etc.), in order to support the task of engineering and maintaining ...

Author: Alexander Maedche

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461509257

Category: Computers

Page: 244

View: 187

Ontology Learning for the Semantic Web explores techniques for applying knowledge discovery techniques to different web data sources (such as HTML documents, dictionaries, etc.), in order to support the task of engineering and maintaining ontologies. The approach of ontology learning proposed in Ontology Learning for the Semantic Web includes a number of complementary disciplines that feed in different types of unstructured and semi-structured data. This data is necessary in order to support a semi-automatic ontology engineering process. Ontology Learning for the Semantic Web is designed for researchers and developers of semantic web applications. It also serves as an excellent supplemental reference to advanced level courses in ontologies and the semantic web.
Categories: Computers

Ontology Management

Ontology Management

Chapter 7 THE BUSINESS VIEW: ONTOLOGY ENGINEERING COSTS Elena
Simperl1 and York Sure2 1Digital Enterprise Research Institute (DERI),
University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 21a, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria, ...

Author: Martin Hepp

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387699004

Category: Computers

Page: 295

View: 948

Ontology Managememt provides an up-to-date, scientifically correct, concise and easy-to-read reference on this topic. The book includes relevant tasks, practical and theoretical challenges, limitations and methodologies, plus available tooling support. The editors discuss integrating the conceptual and technical dimensions with a business view on using ontologies, stressing the cost dimension of ontology engineering and offering guidance on how to derive ontologies semi-automatically from existing standards and specifications.
Categories: Computers

Ontology Conceptualization and Epistemology for Information Systems Software Engineering and Service Science

Ontology  Conceptualization and Epistemology for Information Systems  Software Engineering and Service Science

The proposed method is based on a semi-formal semantic description of dynamic
categories (see figure 2) (note that an ongoing work is related to the study of
existing methodology for ontology engineering in order to improve and
implement ...

Author: Miguel-Angel Sicilia

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642164958

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 147

View: 622

As in the previouseditions, ONTOSE 2010onceagainwasa discussionplatform for all kinds of aspects on ontologies, service sciences, information systems and softwareengineering.The ONTOSE 2010proceedingsre?ect this open discourse and hence contain contributions on various aspects of the above-mentioned - search areas. A total of 25 contributions were received. These contributions - derwent a full peer review with at least two referees, and ?nally 10 papers were presentedattheWorkshopandcollectedintheseproceedings.Thepresentations particularlyfocusedonenterpriseandservicearchitectures,ontologyapplication, visualization and query expansion as well as on ontologies for services. IntheareaofenterpriseandservicearchitecturethepaperwrittenbyThomas Kohlborn, Christian Luebeck, Axel Korthaus, Erwin Fielt, Michael Rosemann, ChristophRiedl andHelmutKrcmaroutlines howrelationshipsbetweenservices can be a basis for service bundling. The work of Remigijus Gustas describes an approach which better supports the integration of static and dynamic aspects in service architectures. The third paper by Sabine Buckl, Florian Matthes, Christopher Schulz and Christian M. Schweda addresses research questions c- cerning interrelating enterprise architecture (EA) (i.e., questions concerning the structure of the framework for interrelating EA, the types of relationship used, utilization of the framework for development and evolution of EA).
Categories: Business & Economics

Formal Ontology in Information Systems

Formal Ontology in Information Systems

N . Guarino ( Ed . ) IOS Press , 1998 The Ontological Engineering Initiative ( KA )
2 V . Richard Benjamins University of Amsterdam , SWI , Roetersstraat 15 , 1018
WB Amsterdam , The Netherlands Dieter Fensel University of Karlsruhe , AIFB ...

Author: Nicola Guarino

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9051993994

Category: Computers

Page: 337

View: 709

Research on ontology is becoming increasingly widespread in the computer science community. While this term has been rather confined to the philosophical sphere in the past, it is now gaining a specific role in areas such as Artificial Intelligence, Computational Linguistics, and Databases. Its importance has been recognized in fields as diverse as knowledge engineering, knowledge representation, qualitative modeling, language engineering, database design, information integration, object-oriented analysis, information retrieval and extraction, knowledge management and organization, agent-based systems design. Current applications areas are disparate, including enterprise integration, natural language translation, medicine, mechanical engineering, electronic commerce, geographic information systems, legal information systems, and biological information systems. Various workshops addressing the engineering aspects of ontology have been held in the recent years. However, ontology by 'its very nature' ought to be a unifying discipline. Insights in this field have potential impact on the whole area of information systems (taking this term in its broadest sense), as testified by the interest recently shown by international standards organizations. In order to provide a solid general foundation for this work, it is therefore important to focus on the common scientific principles and open problems arising from current tools, methodologies, and applications of ontology.
Categories: Computers