It is therefore highly attractive for both basic and applied science. This book gives a broad and coherent overview of the complete production and value chain from nanoparticle formation to integration into products and devices.
Author: Axel Lorke
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Gasphase synthesis of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials offers high chemical purity and crystalline quality as well as scalability up to industrial quantities. It is therefore highly attractive for both basic and applied science. This book gives a broad and coherent overview of the complete production and value chain from nanoparticle formation to integration into products and devices. Written by experts in the field – with backgrounds in electrical engineering, experimental and theoretical physics, materials science, and chemical engineering – the book offers a deep insight into the fabrication, characterization and application of nanoparticles from the gasphase. The first part of the book, “Formation”, covers chemical and growth kinetics, in-situ diagnostics, numerical simulation, process development and material deposition. In the second section, the reader is introduced to the structure and dynamics that lead to functional nanoscale systems and materials. The third section, “Properties and Applications”, provides a detailed discussion of the optical, electronic, magnetic and chemical characteristics of nanostructures and demonstrates how these can be used in tailored materials and devices.
The whole is rounded off by a review of future perspectives and the challenges facing the scientific and industrial communities. An excellent resource for anyone working with the synthesis of nanoparticles, both in academia and industry.
Author: Yves Huttel
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The first overview of this topic begins with some historical aspects and a survey of the principles of the gas aggregation method. The second part covers modifications of this method resulting in different specialized techniques, while the third discusses the post-growth treatment that can be applied to the nanoparticles. The whole is rounded off by a review of future perspectives and the challenges facing the scientific and industrial communities. An excellent resource for anyone working with the synthesis of nanoparticles, both in academia and industry.
The second edition of this book follows the logic of first edition, with an emphasis on presentation of literature results and to guide the reader through derivations.
Author: Klavs Hansen
Thermal processes are ubiquitous and an understanding of thermal phenomena is essential for a complete description of the physics of nanoparticles, both for the purpose of modeling the dynamics of the particles and for the correct interpretation of experimental data. The second edition of this book follows the logic of first edition, with an emphasis on presentation of literature results and to guide the reader through derivations. Several topics have been added to the repertoire, notably magnetism, a fuller exposition of aggregation and the related area of nucleation theory. Also a new chapter has been added on the transient hot electron phenomenon. The book remains focused on the fundamental properties of nanosystems in the gas phase. Each chapter is enriched with additional new exercises and three Appendices provide additional useful material.
This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science.
Author: Claes Granqvist
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology—a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability. Nanotechnology is popular today. However, basic scientific aspects of the relevant, underlying processes have not received sufficient attention. This book fills the gap in the current literature by addressing certain fundamentals of gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis. Chapters cover topics such as forces within and dynamics of nanoparticle systems, gas evaporation and deposition, laser assisted nanoparticle synthesis, and nanoparticle fabrication via flame processes. A chapter on in-situ structural studies of nanoparticles undergoing growth complements the exposition.
Abstract Zinc oxide (ZnO) doped with aluminum receives increasing attention for being an alternative material for the established but much more expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) due to the fact, that it has comparable electrical and optical ...
Publisher: Cuvillier Verlag
Category: Technology & Engineering
Abstract Zinc oxide (ZnO) doped with aluminum receives increasing attention for being an alternative material for the established but much more expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) due to the fact, that it has comparable electrical and optical properties. The electrical properties of mechanically compacted pellets prepared from nanosized ZnO powders are investigated using impedance spectroscopy. The impedance of the samples is measured in hydrogen and in synthetic air between room temperature and 400◦C. In both atmospheres, the measurements show two different electrical transport processes depending on the temperature and the doping level. In synthetic air, the conductivity increases for doping concentrations up to 7.74% of aluminum and collapses for higher doping levels. In hydrogen atmosphere, the conductivity decreases with rising doping level of Al. This behavior can be explained by generation of free charge carriers due to the incorporation of hydrogen and doping with aluminum, respectively. At higher temperatures and at high doping concentrations, scattering processes at grain boundaries as well as lattice defects increasingly affect the charge carrier transport processes leading to a decreasing overall conductivity. The electrical conductivity shows reversible behavior when the atmosphere is changed from hydrogen to ambient conditions and back. To replace ITO in applications, transparent conductive layers with good electrical and optical properties are required. ZnO dispersions are prepared and printed on pre-structured substrates by ink-jet printing to investigate the electrical and sensing properties of printed films. The properties are measured without any annealing steps from room temperature up to 200◦C in ambient conditions and in hydrogen atmosphere using impedance spectroscopy. Compared to the measurements in air, the resistance in hydrogen decreases by a factor of five even at room temperature. The ink-jet printed ZnO films with nanosized particles can be used as sensor without any annealing or post-processing for sensing. Silicon (Si) nanoparticles are envisioned for a broad range of applications, ranging from electroluminescent devices over biomarkers and lithium ion batteries to solar cells. One of the major challenges with respect to these applications is to effectively stabilize the silicon particles against oxidation. Electrical properties of as-prepared as well as functionalized silicon nanoparticles are investigated. The native oxide shell of the as-prepared silicon nanoparticles is removed and the electrical properties are measured and a re-oxidation of the silicon nanoparticles can be observed after a few hours. A fast and efficient process to functionalize silicon nanoparticles with n-alkenes is introduced. The freshly etched particles are subsequently grafted with even-numbered n-alkenes from C6 to C18 in order to prevent the particles from re-oxidation. FTIR spectra are used to confirm the successful attachment of the organic molecules and provide insight into the binding mechanism. Electrical properties are investigated by impedance spectroscopy showing the effect of surface functionalization on the conductivity of compacted nanoparticle ensembles. It is observed that particles covered with alkenes from C6 to C12 exhibit higher conductivity than the as-prepared materials, while surface functionalization with C14 and higher leads to almost insulating nanoparticle arrays. Despite freshly etched silicon nanoparticles, dodecene-terminated particles showed the best conductivity as well as a very good long-term stability against oxidation. FTIR spectroscopy indicated that particles stabilized with C6 to C10 are less stable due to a creeping re-oxidation. The most promising results is the functionalization of silicon nanoparticles with alkenes with twelve carbon atoms (C12). A variable range hopping transport mechanism or a charge carrier limited transport mechanism exist for all silicon nanoparticles. Especially for the functionalized particles, a dependence of the hopping distances can be observed. This does not mean that the charge carriers use the shortest way but the energetically most advantageous. Kurzzusammenfassung Zur Zeit wird Zinkoxid (ZnO) als aussichtsreicher Kandidat zum Ersatz des sehr teuren Indium Zinn Oxids (ITO) angesehen, da es vergleichbare elektrische und optische Eigenschaften zum ITO besitzt. Die elektrischen Eigenschaften von mechanisch kompaktierten Formkörpern aus ZnO-Nanopartikeln werden mittels der Impedanzspektroskopie untersucht. Die Impedanz der Proben wird in Wasserstoffatmosphäre und synthetischer Luft bis hin zu 400◦C untersucht. Die Messungen in Wasserstoffumgebung und synthetischer Luft zeigen unterschiedliche Ergebnisse, abhängig von Temperatur und Dotierkonzentration. In synthetischer Luft steigt die Leitfähigkeit bis zu einer Dotierkonzentration mit Aluminium (Al) von 7,7% an und bricht für höhere Al-Konzentrationen ein. Unter Wasserstoffatmosphäre sinkt die Leitfähigkeit mit zunehmender Al-Dotierkonzentration. Dieses Verhalten kann mit einer Bildung von freien Ladungsträgern aufgrund der Wasserstoffdotierung aus der Umgebung und der entsprechend ansteigenden Al-Konzentration erklärt werden. Zu höheren Temperaturen und Dotierkonzentrationen treten vermehrt Stoßprozesse an Korngrenzen und Gitterdefekten auf, die den Transport der Ladungsträger unterbrechen. Die unterschiedliche Leitfähigkeit zeigt reversibles Verhalten, wenn von Wasserstoffatmosphäre zu synthetischer Luft und zurück gewechselt wird. Für die Anwendung von ZnO für transparent leitfähige Filme und Sensoren aus kostengünstigen Materialien, werden stabile Dispersionen mit sehr kleinen (halb-) leitenden Partikeln im Nanometerbereich benötigt. Stabile ZnO-Dispersionen wurden hergestellt und auf vorstrukturierte Substrate mittels Ink-Jet Druckverfahren aufgebracht. Die elektrischen Senoreigenschaften der gedruckten Schichten wurden bis 200◦C in Umgebungsluft vermessen. Vor den Impedanzmessungen wurden die Schichten nicht ausgeheilt. Verglichen zu den Messungen in Luft wurde beobachtet, dass sich der Widerstand der Schicht unter Wasserstoffatmosphäre bei Raumtemperatur um einen Faktor von fünf reduziert. Die hergestellten, gedruckten ZnO-Schichten zeigen ein gutes Anprechverhalten auf Wasserstoff und sind ohne vorherige Ausheilprozesse zu verwenden. Siliziumpartikel werden gegenwärtig für eine Vielzahl an Anwendungen benutzt. Diese Anwendungen reichen von elektrolumineszierenden Bauteilen über Biomarker und Lithium-Ionen Batterien bis hin zu Solarzellen. Eine der Aufgaben zur Verbesserung der Eigenschaften ist das Auffinden einer Methode zur Stabilisierung der Siliziumoberfläche gegen die Oxidation. Die vorhandene Oxidhülle um das Siliziumnanopartikel nach der Synthese wird entfernt. Die elektrischen Eigenschaften der frisch geätzen Partikel werden gemessen und eine schnelle Reoxidation der Partikel wird innerhalb von Stunden beobachtet. Ein schneller und effektiver Prozess zur Funktionalisierung mit n-Alkenen wird vorgestellt. Die Partikel werden mit unterschiedlich langen Alkenen von C6 bis C18 präpariert um eine Reoxidation der Partikel nach dem Ätzprozess zu verhindern. Mit Hilfe von FTIR Messungen wird die erfolgreiche Anbringung der organischen Moleküle an die Siliziumoberfläche gezeigt. Elektrische Messungen werden mittels der Impedanzspektroskopie durchgeführt, um den Effekt der Funktionalisierung mit den unterschiedlichen Alkenen auf die elektrische Leitfähigkeit hin zu untersuchen. Es zeigt sich eine höhere Leitfähigkeit für alle Siliziumnanopartikel die mit den Alkenen von C6 bis C12 funktionalisiert werden. Die Partikel, die mit Alkenen von einer Kettenlänge von C14 und höher funktionalisiert werden, zeigen eine sehr niedrige Leitfähigkeit, die teilweise schlechter als die von den Silizium Partikeln im Ursprungszustand ist. Die Funktionalisierung mit dem Alken C12 zeigt die besten Ergebnisse und ist auch nach über einen halben Jahr in den elektrischen Eigenschaften stabil. Mit FTIR Messungen wird gezeigt, dass die Partikel, die mit C6 und C10 funktionalisiert werden, keine vollständige Stabilität gegen Reoxidation besitzen. Die Funktionalisierung von Silizium mit Dodecen ist am stabilsten gegenüber Reoxidation und zeigt die besten elektrischen Eigenschaften. Es ist ein ”variable range hopping” Transportmechanimus für die Ladungsträger zwischen den Partikeln zu beobachten. Besonders für die funktionalisierten Partikel ist die zurückgelegte Distanz der Ladungsträger abhängig von der Art der Funktionalisierung. Dies bedeutet aber nicht, dass der Ladungsträger den kürzesten Weg nimmt, sondern den energetisch günstigsten.
The present research work provides data and new understanding of TEOS and HMDSO decomposition kinetics and particle formation and growth of silica nanoparticles in the gas-phase.
Publisher: Cuvillier Verlag
The gas-phase kinetics of the decomposition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and the formation and growth of silica nanoparticles were studied. The kinetics study was carried out in shock-heated gases with species measurements by high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The mass spectra indicate the formation of Si(OH)4 from the decomposition of TEOS while during HMDSO decomposition several Silicon-containing species were found, such as Si atoms, SiO and SiCH3. The ignition-delay time of the precursors in oxygen-containing bath gases was studied by observing the OH* emission signal behind the reflected shock wave. The ignition delay times of TEOS and HMDSO are strongly temperature dependent and the Arrhenius parameters were determined. Silica-particle formation and growth from TEOS and HMDSO were investigated in a hybrid microwave-plasma hot-wall reactor and a low-pressure premixed H2/O2/Ar flame reactor by in-situ and ex-situ measurements. Particle sizes distributions were determined by particle mass spectrometry and the spatial gas-phase temperature distribution was measured with multi-line NO-LIF thermometry. The present research work provides data and new understanding of TEOS and HMDSO decomposition kinetics and particle formation and growth of silica nanoparticles in the gas-phase. These data can be used as input for computational fluid dynamics simulations and hence for the design of reactors for the gas-phase synthesis of highly specific nanoparticles.
Abstract: We report on a gas-phase synthesis method for the preparation of free-standing few-layer graphene in a microwave plasma reactor using pure ethanol as precursor.
Abstract: We report on a gas-phase synthesis method for the preparation of free-standing few-layer graphene in a microwave plasma reactor using pure ethanol as precursor. This scalable synthesis route produces gas-phase graphene (GPG) with lab-scale production rates up to a few hundred mg/h. The physico-chemical properties of the resulting GPG were characterized by XRD, FTIR-, and Raman spectroscopy, electrical conductivity measurements, XPS, and HRTEM in combination with EELS. The materials' properties were compared with those of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) made by the established Hummers' method. The results indicate that the gas-phase synthesis method provides highly-ordered few-layer graphene with extraordinary high purity, very low oxygen content of less than 1at.%, and high specific conductivity. Both graphene materials were processed in combination with gas-phase synthesized silicon nanoparticles towards silicon-graphene nanocomposites for Li-ion battery anodes. Subsequent electrochemical testing revealed that the gas-phase graphene significantly enhances the long-term stability and Coulomb efficiency of the composite compared to pristine silicon and outperforms the composite fabricated from reduced graphene oxide.
A high solubility of Co in ZnO, where Co is substituting Zn in the wurtzite lattice is achieved. This is the key requirement for the development of di-lute magnetic semiconductors based on Co-doped ZnO.
Publisher: Cuvillier Verlag
Category: Technology & Engineering
The quality and application of nanostructured materials are strongly related to particle and powder characteristics. Powders of small particle size, narrow size distribution, low degree of agglomeration and high purity are typically required for the fabrication of solid nanocrystalline materials and the exploitation of size effects in applications. Chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) is a method for the generation of nanoparticles in the gas phase. Process parameters (temperature, pressure, residence time, precursor concentration, etc.) play an important role. In this work it is shown for TiO2 that the way in which energy is supplied to the reactor and the time-temperature history which the particles experience have sub-stantial influence on the particle generation and powder characteristics. The de-gree of agglomeration can be decreased by using high process temperatures and high quenching rates. A novel method, pulsed precursor delivery using a laser flash evaporator, was developed to feed precursors into a CVS reactor. The degree of particle agglomeration can be significantly reduced by pulsed precursor deli-very. The volatility of precursors used in CVS can limit the number of possible material systems which can be produced as well as their production rate. It is shown that these limitations can be overcome by the use of a laser flash evapora-tor, which enables the production of complex oxides such are Co-doped and Co, Li-doped ZnO. A high solubility of Co in ZnO, where Co is substituting Zn in the wurtzite lattice is achieved. This is the key requirement for the development of di-lute magnetic semiconductors based on Co-doped ZnO.
Functionalization of SiO2 nanoparticles and their superhydrophobic surface
coating Y. H. Sehlleier,1 A. Abdali,2 T. ... Previously, we have presented the
synthesis of high-purity nanoparticles from the gas-phase in pilot-plant reactors3
Author: Gordon J. T. Tiddy
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
NanoFormulation covers advances in research, development and applications of innovative formulation technologies where nanomaterials play an essential role.
Chapter 3 Production of Nanoparticles on Supports Using Gas-Phase Deposition
and MBE C. Binns Department of Physics and Astronomy, University Road,
University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. Introduction ...
Category: Technology & Engineering
Metallic nanoparticles display fascinating properties that are quite different from those of individual atoms, surfaces or bulk rmaterials. They are a focus of interest for fundamental science and, because of their huge potential in nanotechnology, they are the subject of intense research effort in a range of disciplines. Applications, or potential applications, are diverse and interdisciplinary. They include, for example, use in biochemistry, in catalysis and as chemical and biological sensors, as systems for nanoelectronics and nanostructured magnetism (e.g. data storage devices), where the drive for further miniaturization provides tremendous technological challenges and, in medicine, there is interest in their potential as agents for drug delivery. The book describes the structure of metallic nanoparticles, the experimental and theoretical techniques by which this is determined, and the models employed to facilitate understanding. The various methods for the production of nanoparticles are outlined. It surveys the properties of clusters and the methods of characterisation, such as photoionization, optical spectroscopy, chemical reactivity and magnetic behaviour, and discusses element-specific information that can be extracted by synchrotron-based techniques such as EXAFS, XMCD and XMLD. The properties of clusters can vary depending on whether they are free, deposited on a surface or embedded in a matrix of another material; these issues are explored. Clusters on a surface can be formed by the diffusion and aggregation of atoms; ways of modelling these processes are described. Finally we look at nanotechnology and examine the science behind the potential of metallic nanoparticles in chemical synthesis, catalysis, the magnetic separation of biomolecules, the detection of DNA, the controlled release of molecules and their relevance to data storage. The book addresses a wide audience. There was a huge development of the subject beginning in the mid-1980s where researchers began to study the properties of free nanoparticle and models were developed to describe the observations. The newcomer is introduced to the established models and techniques of the field without the need to refer to other sources to make the material accessible. It then takes the reader through to the latest research and provides a comprehensive list of references for those who wish to pursue particular aspects in more detail. It will also be an invaluable handbook for the expert in a particular aspect of nanoscale research who wishes to acquire knowledge of other areas. The authors are specialists in different aspects of the subject with expertise in physics and chemistry, experimental techniques and computational modelling, and in interdisciplinary research. They have collaborated in research. They have also collaborated in writing this book, with the aim from the outset of making it is a coherent whole rather than a series of independent loosely connected articles. * Appeals to a wide audience * Provides an introduction to established models and techniques in the field * Comprehensive list of references
PHOTOTHERMAL AEROSOL SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF
SILICON NANOPARTICLES Suddha Talukdar , Xuegeng Li , and Mark T .
Swihart Department of Chemical Engineering , University at Buffalo ( SUNY )
Buffalo , NY ...
Nanotechnology, 22, 485501. Krinke, T.J., Deppert, K., Magnusson, M.H. et al. (
2002) Microscopic aspects of the deposition of nanoparticles from the gas phase.
Journal of Aerosol Science, 33, 1341–1359. Lee, D. and Choi, M. (2000) Control
Author: Ian Colbeck
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Aerosols influence many areas of our daily life. They are at the core of environmental problems such as global warming, photochemical smog and poor air quality. They can also have diverse effects on human health, where exposure occurs in both outdoor and indoor environments. However, aerosols can have beneficial effects too; the delivery of drugs to the lungs, the delivery of fuels for combustion and the production of nanomaterials all rely on aerosols. Advances in particle measurement technologies have made it possible to take advantage of rapid changes in both particle size and concentration. Likewise, aerosols can now be produced in a controlled fashion. Reviewing many technological applications together with the current scientific status of aerosol modelling and measurements, this book includes: • Satellite aerosol remote sensing • The effects of aerosols on climate change • Air pollution and health • Pharmaceutical aerosols and pulmonary drug delivery • Bioaerosols and hospital infections • Particle emissions from vehicles • The safety of emerging nanomaterials • Radioactive aerosols: tracers of atmospheric processes With the importance of this topic brought to the public’s attention after the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull, this book provides a timely, concise and accessible overview of the many facets of aerosol science.
However, for real-world applications, nanoparticles on a support are desired. The
easiest way to deposit nanoparticles from the gas phase is placing a substrate in
the nanoparticle beam. The drawback of this method is the deformation of ...
Publisher: Academic Press
From the Introduction: Nanotechnology and its underpinning sciences are progressing with unprecedented rapidity. With technical advances in a variety of nanoscale fabrication and manipulation technologies, the whole topical area is maturing into a vibrant field that is generating new scientific research and a burgeoning range of commercial applications, with an annual market already at the trillion dollar threshold. The means of fabricating and controlling matter on the nanoscale afford striking and unprecedented opportunities to exploit a variety of exotic phenomena such as quantum, nanophotonic and nanoelectromechanical effects. Moreover, researchers are elucidating new perspectives on the electronic and optical properties of matter because of the way that nanoscale materials bridge the disparate theories describing molecules and bulk matter. Surface phenomena also gain a greatly increased significance; even the well-known link between chemical reactivity and surface-to-volume ratio becomes a major determinant of physical properties, when it operates over nanoscale dimensions. Against this background, this comprehensive work is designed to address the need for a dynamic, authoritative and readily accessible source of information, capturing the full breadth of the subject. Its six volumes, covering a broad spectrum of disciplines including material sciences, chemistry, physics and life sciences, have been written and edited by an outstanding team of international experts. Addressing an extensive, cross-disciplinary audience, each chapter aims to cover key developments in a scholarly, readable and critical style, providing an indispensible first point of entry to the literature for scientists and technologists from interdisciplinary fields. The work focuses on the major classes of nanomaterials in terms of their synthesis, structure and applications, reviewing nanomaterials and their respective technologies in well-structured and comprehensive articles with extensive cross-references. It has been a constant surprise and delight to have found, amongst the rapidly escalating number who work in nanoscience and technology, so many highly esteemed authors willing to contribute. Sharing our anticipation of a major addition to the literature, they have also captured the excitement of the field itself in each carefully crafted chapter. Along with our painstaking and meticulous volume editors, full credit for the success of this enterprise must go to these individuals, together with our thanks for (largely) adhering to the given deadlines. Lastly, we record our sincere thanks and appreciation for the skills and professionalism of the numerous Elsevier staff who have been involved in this project, notably Fiona Geraghty, Megan Palmer and Greg Harris, and especially Donna De Weerd-Wilson who has steered it through from its inception. We have greatly enjoyed working with them all, as we have with each other.
This is an important reference source for materials scientists and engineers who want to learn more about this sustainable, innovative manufacturing technology.
Author: Paolo Milani
Category: Technology & Engineering
Cluster Beam Deposition of Functional Nanomaterials and Devices, Volume 15, provides up-to-date information on the CBD of novel nanomaterials and devices. The book offers an overview of gas phase synthesis in a range of nanoparticles, along with discussions on the development of several devices and applications. Applications include, but are not limited to catalysis, smart nanocomposites, nanoprobes, electronic devices, gas sensors and biosensors. This is an important reference source for materials scientists and engineers who want to learn more about this sustainable, innovative manufacturing technology. Explores the use of CBD for the fabrication of functionalized nanomaterials and devices Shows how CBD is used for both sensing and biomedical applications Discusses how this emerging technology is being commercialized for use on a large-scale
There are three stages in the synthesis of nanoparticles in the gas phase,
requiring the implementation of three types of physical and physicochemical
phenomena. Generically, these three stages are: • production of the compound in
Author: C. Bréchignac
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Here is a brilliant book that covers the major aspects of nanomaterials production. It integrates the many and varied chemical, material and thermo-dynamical facets of production, offering readers a new and unique approach to the subject. The mechanical, optical, and magnetic characteristics of nanomaterials are also presented in detail. Nanomaterials are a fast developing field of research and this book serves as both a reference work for researchers and a textbook for graduate students.
Figure 11.7 Schematic representation of delivering aerosolized nanoparticles in
the gas phase of vitrectomy. (A) The flow-through method demonstrates a
continuous flow of gas and drug with the exit site filtering out drug before entering
Author: Quan Dong Nguyen
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Retinal Pharmacotherapy is the first comprehensive book devoted to pharmacologic agents and their rationale and mechanisms of action in selected retinal and uveitic diseases. Drs. Quan Dong Nguyen, Eduardo Buchele Rodrigues, Michel Eid Farah, and William F. Mieler lead an international team of expert contributors to present up-to-date knowledge of new drugs on the market, the science behind the drugs, evidence of how the drugs work, and the reasons why they are effective or not. This user-friendly, all-in-one reference provides you with easy access to practical information on the effective and appropriate use of pharmacologic agents in the management of retinal diseases. Covers all new and existing retinal drugs to keep you current in this expanding area of the treatment of retinal diseases. Discusses the background behind retinal drugs and the various pathways of how they work so you can make thoroughly informed clinical decisions. Presents 400 color photographs and line drawings that illustrate disease appearance before and after treatment and clarify difficult key concepts. Features contributors from Europe, North America, South America, the Middle East, Asia, and Australia for an international approach. Identifies and emphasizes key points clearly in each chapter to improve comprehension and make finding information easier.
This on-target guide takes readers step-by-step through the manipulation of materials in the nanoscale ...fullerenes...carbon nanotubes...self-assembled nanolayers... gas-phase clusters...monolayer-protected metal nanoparticles...core-shell ...
Author: T. Pradeep
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
Category: Technology & Engineering
Master the Fundamentals of Nanotechnology to Prepare for Nano-Related Career Opportunities If you want to move into the fast-growing field of nanotechnology, you can't afford to miss Nano--The Essentials. This career-building resource offers a rigorous, technological introduction to the fundamentals of nanotechnology, providing everything you need to enter this burgeoning discipline and prepare for nano-related jobs. Packed with over 100 detailed illustrations and lots of practical work-related advice, the book covers the experimental tools of nanotechnology, the basics of nanomaterials, and key applications in fields such as nanosensors, nanobiology, nanomedicine, and nanomachines. This on-target guide takes readers step-by-step through the manipulation of materials in the nanoscale ...fullerenes...carbon nanotubes...self-assembled nanolayers... gas-phase clusters...monolayer-protected metal nanoparticles...core-shell nanoparticles...and much more. Comprehensive and easy-to-understand, Nano--The Essentials features: A solid introduction to the fundamentals of nanomaterials Full details on the experimental tools used in nanotechnology The latest advances in nanobiology and nanomedicine Breakthroughs in the development of nanosensors Cutting-edge innovations in molecular nanomachines Inside this Expert Introduction to the Basics of Nanotechnology • Introduction • Manipulating Materials in the Nanoscale • Fullerenes • Carbon Nanotubes • Self-Assembled Nanolayers • Gas-Phase Clusters • Semiconductor Quantum Dots • Monolayer-Protected Metal Nanoparticles • Core-Shell Nanoparticles • Nanoshells • Nanobiology • Nanosensors • Nanomedicines • Molecular Nanomachines • Nanotribology • Societal Implications
One of the most important issues, when a nanomaterial is designed, is to control the synthetic pathways to ensure the final desired product.
Author: Carlos Lodeiro
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
One of the most important issues, when a nanomaterial is designed, is to control the synthetic pathways to ensure the final desired product. A combination of dry and wet procedures, as well as chemical and physical methodologies, it is possible to successfully prepare new multifunctional nanomaterials, often as a result of multidisciplinary cooperation between chemists, physics, biologist, physicians, material engineers, etc. Drug delivery, environmental detection of contaminants, and many industrial applications directly rely on properties such as water solubility, permeability, cell penetration, shape control, and size of the monodispersed nanoparticle, among others. Functionalized nanomaterials play a crucial role in modern research areas because of their unique physical and chemical properties, explored in many different fields including medicine and biology, new materials, pharmacology as drug delivery systems, and in environmental analysis for sensing new contaminants, among other technical and industrial applications. For future technological applications, the rational design of these multifunctional nanomaterials is critical, and often depends on the excellent control of the organic and inorganic chemical reactions involved during production. The success of their applications relies directly on the photophysical properties created in the final material, including the emission of light or colorimetric responses, water solubility, selectivity, sensitivity, stability, etc. For example, from an analytical point of view, the detection and quantification of emerging analytes is directly dependent on the selectivity and sensitivity showed by the material in a complex media.
GAS PHASE ASSOCIATION REACTIONS IN 13 - 15 CVD : ANNOYING
OBSTACLE OR REWARDING ADVANTAGE ? ... Thus , generation of 1315
nanowires and nanoparticles via association route emerges as a viable
alternative to the ...