Mechanics of Crustal Rocks

Mechanics of Crustal Rocks

Yves Guéguen† and Mark Kachanov‡ † Laboratoire de Géologie, CNRS, Ecole
Normale Supérieure, Paris, France ‡ Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Tufts University, Boston MA, USA AbstractUpper crustal rocks contain cracks of ...

Author: Yves M. Leroy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783709109397

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 701

F.K. Lehner: A Review of the Linear Theory of Anisotropic Poroelastic Solids. - J.W. Rudnicki: Eshelby's Technique for Analyzing Inhomogeneities in Geomechanics. - Y. Gueguen, M. Kachanov: Effective Elastic Properties of Cracked and Porous Rocks - an Overview. - J.L. Raphanel: 3D Morphology Evolution of Solid-Fluid Interfaces by Pressure Solution. - Y.M. Leroy: An Introduction to the Finite-Element Method for Linear and Non-linear Static Problems. The mechanical behaviour of the earth's upper crust enters into a great variety of questions in different areas of the geological and geophysical sciences as well as in the more applied geotechnical disciplines. This volume presents a selection of papers from a CISM course in Udine on this topic. While each of these chapters will make for a useful contribution in its own right, the present bundle also illustrates, by way of examples, the variety of theoretical concepts and tools that are currently brought to bear on earth deformation studies, ranging from reviews of poroelastic field theory to micro-mechanical and homogenization studies, chemomechanics and interfacial stability theory of soluble solids under stress, and finally to an introduction to the finite element method.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Fault Mechanics and Transport Properties of Rocks

Fault Mechanics and Transport Properties of Rocks

... general topics in which Brace's work has had fundamental impact: brittle failure
of crustal rocks, permeability and fluid flow, fracture characterization and physical
properties of rocks, and implications of rock mechanics on crustal tectonics.

Author: Brian Evans

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 008095989X

Category: Science

Page: 524

View: 598

This festschrift, compiled from the symposium held in honor of W.F. Brace, is a timely overview of fault mechanics and transport properties of rock. State-of-the-art research is presented by internationally recognized experts, who highlight developments in this contemporary area of study subsequent to Bill Brace's pioneering work. Key Features * The strength of brittle rocks * The effects of stress and stress-induced damage on physical properties of rock * Permeability and fluid flow in rocks * The strength of rocks and tectonic processes
Categories: Science

Continuum Mechanics Aspects of Geodynamics and Rock Fracture Mechanics

Continuum Mechanics Aspects of Geodynamics and Rock Fracture Mechanics

SURFACE DEFORMATION IN ICELAND AND CRUSTAL STRESS OVER A.
MANTILE PLUME Eysteinn Tryggvason ... but seismic activity will be low and only
small earthquakes will occur because of the low tensile strength of crustal rocks.

Author: P. Thoft-Christensen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401022682

Category: Science

Page: 273

View: 857

During a NATO Advanced Study Institute in Izmir, Tur key, July 1973 on Modern Developments in Engineering Seis mology and Earthquake Engineering it emerged that a debate on Continuum Mechanics Aspects of Geodynamics and Rock Fracture Mechanics would be very welcome. Therefore, it was decided to seek NATO sponsorship for an Advanced Study In stitute on this subject. The purpose of the new Advanced Study Institute was to provide a link between mechanics of continuum media and geo dynamic s. By bringing together a group of leading scientists from the above two fields and participants actively engaged in research and applications in the same fields, it was believed that fruitful discussions could emerge to facilitate an exchange of knowledge, experience and newly-conceived ideas. The Institute aimed primarily at the solution of such problems as connected with the study of stress and strain con ditions in the Earth, generic causes of earthquakes, energy release and focal mechanism and seismic wave propagation in troducing modern methods of continuum and rock fracture mechanics. Secondly to inspire scientists working in continuum mechanics to open new avenues of research connected with the above problems, and seismologists to adapt modern, advanced methods of continuum and rock fracture mechanics to their work.
Categories: Science

Mechanics of Fluid Saturated Rocks

Mechanics of Fluid Saturated Rocks

Fluids permeate the pores and cracks of crustal rocks and often have a significant
effect on rock deformation and failure under stress. The fluids of interest may, in
different circumstances, be water, carbon dioxide, or hydrocarbons. Straining of ...

Author: Yves Gueguen

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080479367

Category: Science

Page: 450

View: 343

Mechanics of Fluid Saturated Rocks presents a current and comprehensive report on this emerging field that bridges the areas of geology and mechanics. It is of direct interest to a wide spectrum of earth scientists and engineers who are concerned with upper-crust mechanics and fluid movements, the most important fluids being oil and water. This authoritative book is the result of a collaborative effort between scientists in academic institutions and industry. It examines important issues such as subsidence, geological fault formation, earthquake faulting, hydraulic fracturing, transport of fluids, and natural and direct applications. Mechanics of Fluid Saturated Rocks provides a unique interdisciplinary viewpoint, as well as case studies, conclusions, and recommendations for further research. Covers the physical, chemical, and mechanical analysis of porous saturated rock deformation on both large and small scales Discusses the latest developments of importance to engineers and geologists Examines natural and direct applications Includes extensive bibliographies for each chapter
Categories: Science

Elements of Crustal Geomechanics

Elements of Crustal Geomechanics

A detailed introduction to the study of crustal geomechanics, particularly the seismogenic crust, with exercises, solutions, and field-based datasets.

Author: François Henri Cornet

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521875783

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 461

View: 211

A detailed introduction to the study of crustal geomechanics, particularly the seismogenic crust, with exercises, solutions, and field-based datasets.
Categories: Business & Economics

Mechanical Behaviour of Rocks Under High Pressure Conditions

Mechanical Behaviour of Rocks Under High Pressure Conditions

Further studies as well as TEM studies are required to confirm such behavior for
other , especially fine - grained rock . 4.3 MICROMECHANICS 4.3.1 Introduction
Fracturing dominates the deformation of rocks at high crustal levels ( Mitra 1978 ...

Author: Mitsuhiko Shimada

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9058093166

Category: Science

Page: 180

View: 100

Knowledge of the mechanical properties of rocks at high pressure and temperature is fundamental not only for material science but also for earth science, such as for solving the mechanism of earthquakes and tectonic processes. For example, physical bases of the earthquake prediction based on the rock mechanics have been proposed, and extensive seismological, geophysical and geochemical observations have been conducted to find precursory phenomena before large earthquakes. However, we cannot help telling for the present that we do not have sufficient knowledge of an effective and reliable method for earthquake prediction. The book is mainly concerned with comprehensive source of information on the mechanical properties and behavior of rocks under high pressure that scans current state-of-the-art knowledge and shows contribution in establishing an experimental basis for the understanding of the mechanism of rock deformation in the earth's interior. The book can be used as textbook for graduate students by university teachers to prepare courses and seminars, and for active scientists and engineers who want to become familiar with a fascinating new field.
Categories: Science

Evolution and Differentiation of the Continental Crust

Evolution and Differentiation of the Continental Crust

The extraction of melt from crustal protoliths and the flow behavior of partially
molten crustal rocks: an experimental ... to highercrustal levels,
andthemechanical propertiesofpartiallymolten crustal rocks in those
circumstances where melt is ...

Author: Michael Brown

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521782371

Category: Science

Page: 553

View: 792

The evolution and differentiation of the continental crust pose fundamental questions that are being addressed by new research concerning melting, melt extraction and transport through the crust, and the effect of melt on crustal rheology. Insights into crustal processes have been triggered by combined field observations and laboratory experiments, supported by developments in numerical modelling. Opening chapters cover the structure of the continents, controls on heat production and the composition, differentiation and evolution of continental crust. The role of arc magmatism in the Phanerozoic and crustal generation in the Archean are addressed. Two regional examples illustrate the modification and differentiation of continental crust. Process-oriented chapters cover melting, melt extraction and migration, and crustal rheology. The final chapters review the emplacement and growth of plutons and outline a modeling approach to the physical controls on crustal differentiation. This is a valuable summary of recent advances for graduate students and research workers.
Categories: Science

Mechanics in the Earth and Environmental Sciences

Mechanics in the Earth and Environmental Sciences

breakouts (due to rock buckling into the borehole) are more like to take place at B
and B' than at A and A', so the ... 8.9 State of stress in the crust of the earth The
deformation of crustal rocks must be related to the history of the stresses to which
 ...

Author: Gerard V. Middleton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521446694

Category: Science

Page: 459

View: 790

The study of the Earth and the environment requires an understanding of the physical processes within and at the surface of the Earth. This book will allow the student to develop a broad working knowledge of mechanics and its application to the earth and environmental sciences. The mathematics are introduced at a level that assumes only an understanding of first-year calculus. The concepts are then developed to allow an understanding of the basic physics for a wide range of natural processes. These are illustrated by examples from many real situations, such as the application of the theory of flow through porous media to the study of groundwater, the viscosity of fluids to the flow of lava, and the theory of stress to the study of faults. The breadth of topics will allow students and professionals to gain an insight into the workings of many aspects of the Earth's systems.
Categories: Science

20th U S Symposium on Rock Mechanics

20th U S  Symposium on Rock Mechanics

AN INTERPRETATION OF THE CRUSTAL STRESS FIELD IN NORTHEAST
NORTH AMERICA by C . F . Lee and H . W . Asmis , Ontario Hydro This paper
was presented at the 20th U . S . Symposium on Rock Mechanics , held in Austin
 ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: PSU:000007420863

Category: Rock mechanics

Page: 694

View: 719

Categories: Rock mechanics

IUTAM Symposium on Analytical and Computational Fracture Mechanics of Non Homogeneous Materials

IUTAM Symposium on Analytical and Computational Fracture Mechanics of Non Homogeneous Materials

THE INTERPLAY OF MATERIAL AND GEOMETRIC INSTABILITIES IN LARGE
DEFORMATIONS OF VISCOUS ROCK H - B MÜHLHAUS ... The challenge
remains in many instances to explain the evolution of the enormous variety of
shapes and forms observed in sedimentary - and crustal rock structures . ... We
develop a mechanical model including a large deformation formulation for
multilayered rock .

Author: Bhushan L. Karihaloo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402005105

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 518

View: 460

This volume constitutes the Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on "Analytical and Computational Fracture Mechanics of Non-homogeneous Materials", held in Cardiff from 18th to 22nd June 2001. The Symposium was convened to address and place on record topical issues in analytical and computational aspects of the fracture of non-homogeneous materials as they are approached by specialists in mechanics, materials science and related fields. The expertise represented in the Symposium was accordingly very wide, and many of the world's greatest authorities in their respective fields participated. Given the extensive range and scale of non-homogeneous materials, it had to be focussed to enhance the quality and impact of the Symposium. The range of non-homogeneous materials was limited to those that are inhomogeneous at the macroscopic level and/or exhibit strain softening. The issues of micro to macro scaling were not excluded even within this restricted range which covered materials such as rock, concrete, ceramics and composites on the one hand, and, on the other, those metallic materials whose ductile fracture is strongly influenced by the presence of inhomogeneities. The Symposium remained focussed on fundamental research issues of practical significance. These issues have many common features among seemingly disparate non-homogeneous materials.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Structural Geology

Structural Geology

This book stands alone in unifying deformation and metamorphism and the development of the mineralogical fabrics and the structures that we see in the field.

Author: Bruce E. Hobbs

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780124079335

Category: Science

Page: 680

View: 633

Structural Geology is a groundbreaking reference that introduces you to the concepts of nonlinear solid mechanics and non-equilibrium thermodynamics in metamorphic geology, offering a fresh perspective on rock structure and its potential for new interpretations of geological evolution. This book stands alone in unifying deformation and metamorphism and the development of the mineralogical fabrics and the structures that we see in the field. This reflects the thermodynamics of systems not at equilibrium within the framework of modern nonlinear solid mechanics. The thermodynamic approach enables the various mechanical, thermal, hydrological and chemical processes to be rigorously coupled through the second law of thermodynamics, invariably leading to nonlinear behavior. The book also differs from others in emphasizing the implications of this nonlinear behavior with respect to the development of the diverse, complex, even fractal, range of structures in deformed metamorphic rocks. Building on the fundamentals of structural geology by discussing the nonlinear processes that operate during the deformation and metamorphism of rocks in the Earth's crust, the book's concepts help geoscientists and graduate-level students understand how these processes control or influence the structures and metamorphic fabrics—providing applications in hydrocarbon exploration, ore mineral exploration, and architectural engineering. Authored by two of the world's foremost experts in structural geology, representing more than 70 years of experience in research and instruction Nearly 300 figures, illustrations, working examples, and photographs reinforce key concepts and underscore major advances in structural geology
Categories: Science

Mechanics of Porous and Fractured Media

Mechanics of Porous and Fractured Media

Ocean crust ando livines The geomaterial laying beneath the oceanic crust is
presented by peridotites, essential part of which are olivines. The Hess chemical
reaction (( olivine + water = serpentinite }) can take place only if the rocks are ...

Author: Viktor Nikolaevich Nikolaevski?

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9971503832

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 472

View: 299

In a significantly revised English edition the text provides a solid course on mechanics of porous & fractured media (mainly of geomaterials). Part I focuses on the continuum theory of the dynamic fracture and deformation of bodies with complex rheology, including the dilatancy theory. Applications are connected with dynamics large scale processes, blast waves and with structure of the Earth's crust. Part II focuses on the effects of fluid saturation of pores and transfer phenomena. Applications are connected with seismic waves, oil and gascondensate recovery, explosion works, physico-chemical processes.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Stress Field of the Earth s Crust

Stress Field of the Earth s Crust

Whereas the Coulomb criterion is strictly empirical, the Griffith and modified
Griffith criterion predict macroscopic failure based on a description of the
micromechanics. The approach Eq. (3.7) is incorrect when investigating rock
failure under ...

Author: Arno Zang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402084447

Category: Science

Page: 324

View: 454

Stress Field of the Earth’s Crust is based on lecture notes prepared for a course offered to graduate students in the Earth sciences and engineering at University of Potsdam. In my opinion, it will undoubtedly also become a standard reference book on the desk of most scientists working with rocks, such as geophysicists, structural geologists, rock mechanics experts, as well as geotechnical and petroleum en- neers. That is because this book is concerned with what is probably the most pe- liar characteristic of rock – its initial stress condition. Rock is always under a natural state of stress, primarily a result of the gravitational and tectonic forces to which it is subjected. Crustal stresses can vary regionally and locally and can reach in places considerable magnitudes, leading to natural or man-made mechanical failure. P- existing stress distinguishes rock from most other materials and is at the core of the discipline of “Rock Mechanics”, which has been developed over the last century. Knowledge of rock stress is fundamental to understanding faulting mechanisms and earthquake triggering, to designing stable underground caverns and prod- tive oil fields, and to improving mining methods and geothermal energy extraction, among others. Several books have been written on the subject, but none has atte- ted to be as all-encompassing as the one by Zang and Stephansson.
Categories: Science

International Conference on Mechanics and Materials Engineering ICMME 2014

International Conference on Mechanics and Materials Engineering  ICMME 2014

Based on analysis of anchoring mechanism of joint fractured rock mass in mines,
We can come to the conclusion that the ... discontinuity, anisotropic
characteristics were forced to present due to the unceasing movement of crustal
rock, mainly ...

Author:

Publisher: DEStech Publications, Inc

ISBN: 9781605951775

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 758

View: 908

The conference aims to provide an excellent international academic forum for all the researchers, practitioner, students and teachers in related fields to share their knowledge and results in theory, methodology and application on mechanics and materials engineering. ICMME2014 features unique mixed topics of Mechanics, Materials Science and Materials Processing Technology, Emerging materials and other related ones. The ICMME2014 proceeding tends to collect the most up-to-date, comprehensive, and worldwide state-of-art knowledge on mechanics and materials engineering. All the accepted papers have been submitted to strict peer-review by 2–4 expert referees, and selected based on originality, significance and clarity for the purpose of the conference. The conference program is extremely rich, profound and featuring high-impact presentations of selected papers and additional late-breaking contributions. We sincerely hope that the conference would not only show the participants a broad overview of the latest research results on related fields, but also provide them a significant platform for academic connection and exchange.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

The Seismogenic Zone of Subduction Thrust Faults

The Seismogenic Zone of Subduction Thrust Faults

Dieterich, J. H. (1981), Constitutive properties of faults with simulated gouge, in
Mechanical Behavior of Crustal Rocks, ... D.C. Dieterich, J. H. (1986), A model for
the nucleation of earthquake slip, in Earthquake Source Mechanics, Geophys.

Author: Timothy H. Dixon

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231512015

Category: Science

Page: 692

View: 530

Subduction zones, one of the three types of plate boundaries, return Earth's surface to its deep interior. Because subduction zones are gently inclined at shallow depths and depress Earth's temperature gradient, they have the largest seismogenic area of any plate boundary. Consequently, subduction zones generate Earth's largest earthquakes and most destructive tsunamis. As tragically demonstrated by the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami of December 2004, these events often impact densely populated coastal areas and cause large numbers of fatalities. While scientists have a general understanding of the seismogenic zone, many critical details remain obscure. This volume attempts to answer such fundamental concerns as why some interplate subduction earthquakes are relatively modest in rupture length (greater than 100 km) while others, such as the great (M greater than 9) 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and 2004 Sumatra events, rupture along 1000 km or more. Contributors also address why certain subduction zones are fully locked, accumulating elastic strain at essentially the full plate convergence rate, while others appear to be only partially coupled or even freely slipping; whether these locking patterns persist through the seismic cycle; and what is the role of sediments and fluids on the incoming plate. Nineteen papers written by experts in a variety of fields review the most current lab, field, and theoretical research on the origins and mechanics of subduction zone earthquakes and suggest further areas of exploration. They consider the composition of incoming plates, laboratory studies concerning sediment evolution during subduction and fault frictional properties, seismic and geodetic studies, and regional scale deformation. The forces behind subduction zone earthquakes are of increasing environmental and societal importance.
Categories: Science

Rock Damage and Fluid Transport

Rock Damage and Fluid Transport

Part I of this topical volume covers mainly the nucleation and evolution of crack damage in rocks, new or modified techniques to measure rock fracture toughness and a discussion of upscaling techniques relating mechanical and fluid ...

Author: Arno Zang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764381240

Category: Science

Page: 2258

View: 410

Mechanical properties and fluid transport in rocks are intimately linked as deformation of a solid rock matrix immediately affects the pore space and permeability. Part I of this topical volume covers mainly the nucleation and evolution of crack damage in rocks, new or modified techniques to measure rock fracture toughness and a discussion of upscaling techniques relating mechanical and fluid transport behaviour in rocks at different spatial scales.
Categories: Science

Metasomatism and the Chemical Transformation of Rock

Metasomatism and the Chemical Transformation of Rock

Crustal. Fluid. Flow. J.A.D. Connolly and Y.Y. Podladchikov Abstract
Metamorphic devolatilization generates fluids at, ... Geological compaction
literature invariably assumes linear viscous mechanisms; but lower crustal rocks
may well be ...

Author: Daniel Harlov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642283932

Category: Science

Page: 806

View: 836

Fluid-aided mass transfer and subsequent mineral re-equilibration are the two defining features of metasomatism and must be present in order for metamorphism to occur. Coupled with igneous and tectonic processes, metasomatism has played a major role in the formation of the Earth’s continental and oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle as well as in their evolution and subsequent stabilization. Metasomatic processes can include ore mineralization, metasomatically induced alteration of oceanic lithosphere, mass transport in and alteration of subducted oceanic crust and overlying mantle wedge, which has subsequent implications regarding mass transport, fluid flow, and volatile storage in the lithospheric mantle overall, as well as both regional and localized crustal metamorphism. Metasomatic alteration of accessory minerals such as zircon or monazite can allow for the dating of metasomatic events as well as give additional information regarding the chemistry of the fluids responsible. Lastly present day movement of fluids in both the lithospheric mantle and deep to mid crust can be observed utilizing geophysical resources such as electrical resistivity and seismic data. Such observations help to further clarify the picture of actual metasomatic processes as inferred from basic petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical data. The goal of this volume is to bring together a diverse group of geologists, each of whose specialities and long range experience regarding one or more aspects of metasomatism during geologic processes, should allow them to contribute to a series of review chapters, which outline the basis of our current understanding of how metasomatism influences and helps to control both the evolution and stability of the crust and lithospheric mantle.
Categories: Science

Margins

Margins

http://www.nap.edu/catalog/1500.html SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE ON ROCK
MECHANICS PROBLEMS AT ACTIVE ... This occurs because at the temperature
and pressure of the transition, the upper crustal rocks can flow by dislocation
creep ...

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309041881

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 860

Approximately 70 percent of the world's population is concentrated in the coastal borderlands, which geologists recognize to be the present continental margins. This new book on these continental margins provides a detailed account of a meeting which brought together specialists in marine and terrestrial geology, geochemistry, and geophysics. The workshop garnered widespread support and enthusiasm for a new direction in margins research focused on interdisciplinary studies of the fundamental processes of continental margin evolution. Scientific problems and solutions were identified for both divergent and convergent margins. Results of the workshop show that many of the fundamental plate interaction processes are common to all margins, whether formed by extension, contraction, or translation. This conclusion suggests a unified approach to margins research. A margins initiative has been proposed to follow up on the workshop results by developing science programs aimed at understanding the processes that control the initiation and evolution of continental margins.
Categories: Science