Originally written as a 1957 television play and adapted first as an Academy Award-winning 1961 film and as a recent Broadway production, this acclaimed drama brings to life the post-World War II international tribunals at Nuremberg in ...
Author: Abby Mann
Publisher: New Directions Publishing
Originally written as a 1957 television play and adapted first as an Academy Award-winning 1961 film and as a recent Broadway production, this acclaimed drama brings to life the post-World War II international tribunals at Nuremberg in which Nazi war criminals were brought to justice for their crimes against humanity. Original.
As Francine Hirsch reveals in this new history of the trials, a central part of the story has been ignored or forgotten: the critical role the Soviet Union played in making them happen in the first place.
Author: Francine Hirsch
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
"Soviet Judgment at Nuremberg reveals the pivotal role the Soviet Union played in the Nuremberg Trials of 1945 and 1946. The Nuremberg Trials (IMT), most notable for their aim to bring perpetrators of Nazi war crimes to justice in the wake of World War II, paved the way for global conversations about genocide, justice, and human rights that continue to this day. As Francine Hirsch reveals in this new history of the trials, a central part of the story has been ignored or forgotten: the critical role the Soviet Union played in making them happen in the first place. While there were practical reasons for this omission--until recently, critical Soviet documents about Nuremberg were buried in the former Soviet archives, and even Russian researchers had limited access--Hirsch shows that there were political reasons as well. The Soviet Union was regarded by its wartime Allies not just as a fellow victor but a rival, and it was not in the interests of the Western powers to highlight the Soviet contribution to postwar justice"--
Throughout the trial he has remained silent, but he now voluntarily takes the stand and admits to being guilty of both ignoring and rationalizing the inhuman Nazi acts because he felt they were for the ultimate good of the country.
Author: Abby Mann
Publisher: new American Library of Canada
Throughout the trial he has remained silent, but he now voluntarily takes the stand and admits to being guilty of both ignoring and rationalizing the inhuman Nazi acts because he felt they were for the ultimate good of the country. As Haywood and his two associate judges ponder their decisions, the news that Russia has blockaded Berlin prompts military officials to hint that lenient judgments might be wise, and expedient. But Haywood, determined to stand for 'justice, truth, and the value of a single human being, refuses to compromise, and he sentences the defendants to life imprisonment. The defiant Rolfe sneers that in 5 years the convicted men will be free"--AFI catalog, 1961-1970.
Judgment. at. Nuremberg. (1962). On Tuesday evening, April 16, 1959—a month
after the movie premier of The Diary of ... Playhouse 90, aired Abby Mann's Judgment at Nuremberg, a 90-minute courtroom melodrama dealing with “
Author: Robert Niemi
Category: Performing Arts
A resource on the depiction of historical events in film, on television, and on the Internet combines the latest scholarship with reviews of specific works.
Reprints the insightful contributions of more than fifty screenwriters, directors, producers, historians, and critics on diverse films from the earliest years of the film industry through the 1970s. ...a celebration of artistic and ...
Author: David Platt
Category: Performing Arts
Reprints the insightful contributions of more than fifty screenwriters, directors, producers, historians, and critics on diverse films from the earliest years of the film industry through the 1970s. ...a celebration of artistic and intellectual aspiration.--LIBRARY JOURNAL
Judgment at Nuremberg places a judge in the hero's role. Portraying the post-
World War II trial of men who themselves served as judges during the Nazi
regime, it concentrates, uniquely, on what one character describes as "crimes
Author: Nicole Rafter
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Performing Arts
Movies play a central role in shaping our understanding of crime and the world generally, helping us define what is good and bad, desirable and unworthy, lawful and illicit, strong and weak. Crime films raise controversial issues about the distribution of social power and the meanings of deviance, and they provide a safe space for fantasies of rebellion, punishment, and the restoration of order. In this first comprehensive study of its kind, well-known criminologist Nicole Rafter examines the relationship between society and crime films from the perspectives of criminal justice, film history and technique, and sociology. Dealing with over 300 films ranging from gangster and cop to trial and prison movies, Shots in the Mirror concentrates on works in the Hollywood tradition but also identifies a darker strain of critical films that portray crime and punishment more bleakly.
In April and May 1945 the New York Times reported almost daily on the atrocities
revealed in the camps. ... Bradley F. Smith, Reaching Judgment at Nuremberg,
51, 57; Pomorski, “Conspiracy and Criminal Organizations,” 217–38; Taylor, ...
Author: Arieh J. Kochavi
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
Between November 1945 and October 1946, the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg tried some of the most notorious political and military figures of Nazi Germany. The issue of punishing war criminals was widely discussed by the leaders of the Allied nations, however, well before the end of the war. As Arieh Kochavi demonstrates, the policies finally adopted, including the institution of the Nuremberg trials, represented the culmination of a complicated process rooted in the domestic and international politics of the war years. Drawing on extensive research, Kochavi painstakingly reconstructs the deliberations that went on in Washington and London at a time when the Germans were perpetrating their worst crimes. He also examines the roles of the Polish and Czech governments-in-exile, the Soviets, and the United Nations War Crimes Commission in the formulation of a joint policy on war crimes, as well as the neutral governments' stand on the question of asylum for war criminals. This compelling account thereby sheds new light on one of the most important and least understood aspects of World War II.
General comprehension has not been aided by the single most important popular
representation of 'Nuremberg', Abby Mann's Judgment at Nuremberg. This
Hollywood production spliced together with considerable artistic license
Author: Lawrence Raful
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
60 years after the trials of the main German war criminals, the articles in this book attempt to assess the Nuremberg Trials from a historical and legal point of view, and to illustrate connections, contradictions and consequences. In view of constantly reoccurring reports of mass crimes from all over the world, we have only reached the halfway point in the quest for an effective system of international criminal justice. With the legacy of Nuremberg in mind, this volume is a contribution to the search for answers to questions of how the law can be applied effectively and those committing crimes against humanity be brought to justice for their actions.
EARLY INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNALS This section investigates the
role of general principles of law in the ... 591–608; Smith, Bradley, Reaching Judgment at Nuremberg, New York, Basic Books Inc. Publishers, 1977, 349 pp.;
Author: Fabián Raimondo
International lawyers usually disregard the vital functions that general principles of law may play in the decisions of international courts and tribunals. As far as international criminal law is concerned, general principles of law may be crucial to the outcome of an international trial, "inter alia" because the conviction of an accused in respect of a particular charge may depend on the existence of a given defence under this source. This volume examines the role that general principles of law have played in the decisions of international criminal courts and tribunals. In particular, it analyses their alleged a ~subsidiarya (TM) nature, their process of determination, and their transposition from national legal systems into international law. It concludes that general principles of law have played a significant role in the decisions of international criminal courts and tribunals, not only by filling legal gaps, but also by being a fundamental means for the interpretation of legal rules and the enhancement of legal reasoning.
This is brought to light in the reasoning of the International Military Tribunal ( "
IMT " ) for its acquittal of Schacht in its 1946 judgment at Nuremberg . “ However ,
even when the actus reus is proved beyond reasonable doubt , the absence of ...
in terms of fairness, whereas the Nuremberg proceedings, as noted, were
substantially fair. Lastly, the verdict (judgment) at Nuremberg was, with few
exceptions, substantially fair; whereas the Tokyo verdict (judgment) was
substantially unfair ...
Author: M. Cherif Bassiouni
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This book traces the evolution of crimes against humanity (CAH) and their application from the end of World War I to the present day, in terms of both historic legal analysis and subject-matter content. The first part of the book addresses general issues pertaining to the categorization of CAH in normative jurisprudential and doctrinal terms. This is followed by an analysis of the specific contents of CAH, describing its historic phases going through international criminal tribunals, mixed model tribunals and the International Criminal Court. The book examines the general parts and defenses of the crime, along with the history and jurisprudence of both international and national prosecutions. For the first time, a list of all countries that have enacted national legislation specifically directed at CAH is collected, along with all of the national prosecutions that have occurred under national legislation up to 2010.
Furthermore, the judges referred to the OSS film evidence in their finaljudgment,
which states: 'grim evidence of mass ... Given that senior OSS officials involved in the Nuremberg trials originally viewed these proceedings as part of a wider ...
Author: Michael Salter
Reviewing recently declassified CIA documents, this book provides a balanced but critical discussion of the contribution of American intelligence officials to the Nuremberg war crimes trials. Giving new details of how senior Nazi war criminals, such as SS General Karl Wolff, were provided with effective immunity deals, partly as a reward for their wartime cooperation with US intelligence officials, including Allen Dulles, former CIA Director, the author also discusses the role of such officials in mobilizing the unique resources of a modern intelligence agency to provide important trial testimony and vital documentary evidence. Nazi War Crimes, US Intelligence and Selective Prosecution at Nuremberg argues that both war crimes prosecutors and intelligence officials can engage in mutually beneficial collaborations, but that both sides need to recognize and appreciate the problems that may arise from the fact that these institutions are required to operate according to different, and in some cases contradictory, agendas. This topical book gives those studying, or with interests in, international law, criminal law and history an insight into the debates surrounding international war crimes, within the context of the Nuremberg war crimes trials.
Judgment at Nuremberg, produced and directed by Stanley Kramer, written by
Abby Mann (United Artists, 1961). On other ways of framing what this
presentation calls the “Nuremberg idea,” see Leila N. Sadat, “The Nuremberg
Author: Bruce J. Schulman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The twentieth century has been popularly seen as "the American Century," a long period in which the United States had amassed the economic resources, the political and military strength, and the moral prestige to assume global leadership. By century's end, the trajectory of American politics, the sense of ever waxing federal power, and the nation's place in the world seemed less assured. Americans of many stripes came to contest the standard narratives of nation building and international hegemony charted by generations of historians. In this volume, a group of distinguished U.S. historians confronts the teleological view of the inexorable transformation of the United States into a modern nation. The contributors analyze a host of ways in which local places were drawn into a wider polity and culture, while at the same time revealing how national and international structures and ideas created new kinds of local movements and local energies. Rather than seeing the century as a series of conflicts between liberalism and conservatism, they illustrate the ways in which each of these political forces shaped its efforts over the other's cumulative achievements, accommodating to shifts in government, social mores, and popular culture. They demonstrate that international connections have transformed domestic life in myriad ways and, in turn, that the American presence in the world has been shaped by its distinctive domestic political culture. Finally, they break down boundaries between the public and private sectors, showcasing the government's role in private life and how private organizations influenced national politics. Revisiting and revising many of the chestnuts of American political history, this volume challenges received wisdom about the twentieth-century American experience.
But these two precedents stand alone in the annals of legal history, and no such
international criminal justice system has ... Connot, Justice at nuremberg (1983);
Bradley smith, reaching Judgment at nuremberg (1977); the trial of the germans:
Author: M. Cherif Bassiouni
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
This title covers the history, nature, and sources of international criminal law; the ratione personae; ratione materiae - sources of substantive international criminal law; the indirect enforcement system; the direct enforcement system; and much more.
The judgement should adjudicate:... that every member of the Government and
organisations on trial is guilty of the same ... but not be limited to, murder, ill-
treatment or deportation to slave labour 29 Smith, Reaching Judgment at Nuremberg, ...
Author: Elies van Sliedregt
Publisher: OUP Oxford
This book examines the concept of individual criminal responsibility for serious violations of international law, i.e. aggression, genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Such crimes are rarely committed by single individuals. Rather, international crimes generally connote a plurality of offenders, particularly in the execution of the crimes, which are often orchestrated and masterminded by individuals behind the scene of the crimes who can be termed 'intellectual perpetrators'. For a determination of individual guilt and responsibility, a fair assessment of the mutual relationships between those persons is indispensable. By setting out how to understand and apply concepts such as joint criminal enterprise, superior responsibility, duress, and the defence of superior orders, this work provides a framework for that assessment. It does so by bringing to light the roots of these concepts, which lie not merely in earlier phases of development of international criminal law but also in domestic law and legal doctrine. The book also critically reflects on how criminal responsibility has been developed in the case law of international criminal tribunals and courts. It thus illuminates and analyses the rules on individual responsibility in international law.
Irving, Nuremberg, 161–162. Tusa, The Nuremberg Trial, 86. Bradley F. Smith,
Reaching Judgment at Nuremberg (New York: Basic, 1977), 303. Wilbourn
Benton, ed., Nuremberg: German Views of the War Trials (Dallas: Southern
Author: Peter Maguire
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science
In this classic text, Peter Maguire follows America's legal relationship with war, both before and after the Nuremberg trials of the 1940s. Maguire argues that the precedents set by the trials were nothing less than revolutionary, and he traces the development of these new attitudes throughout American history. The text has been revised throughout, with a new preface and postscript discussing the George W. Bush administration's attempt to rewrite the laws of war after 9/11. Maguire connects these efforts to the decline in American power and reputation. Praise for the previous edition: "[An] intriguing historical analysis."—Harvard Law Review "Outstanding... impressive... a terrific book."—American Historical Review "A five-star accomplishment that will intrigue the reader and prove that, in history, truth is often more fascinating than fiction."—H. W. William Caming, former Nuremberg prosecutor "Perceptive."—Journal of American History "An important and fascinating study, marked by impressive research and moral passion."—Ronald Steel, University of Southern California "A 'must read' for all those interested in international criminal law, war crimes, and war crime trials."—J. C. Watkins Jr., University of Alabama "A sobering exploration of the hypocrisy and double standards that shape the laws of war. Maguire reveals the conflict between American ideology and American imperialism, the Faustian compromises made by our leaders during their elusive quest for justice."—Iris Chang, author of The Rape of Nanking "A pioneering account.... Law and War goes back to the middle of the nineteenth century to trace the history of modern war crimes, their shock value, and the efforts made to bring their perpetrators to account."—Thomas Keenan, Bardian
9 Diplomats on Trial at Nuremberg International Military Tribunal Towards the
end of the war the Allies made plans to round ... Bradley F. Smith, Reaching Judgment at Nuremberg (London: Andre Deutsch, 1977), 68; John L. Heineman,
Author: William Young
The continuity issue has been a theme in German historiography for half a century. Historians have examined the foreign policy of Wilhelmine and Nazi Germany that led to two world wars. Dr. William Young examines the continuity of German Foreign Office influence in the formulation of foreign policy under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck (1862-1890), Kaiser William II (1888-1918), the Weimar Republic (1919-1933), and Adolf Hitler (1933-1945). He stresses the role and influence of strong German leaders in the making of policy and the conduct of foreign relations. German Diplomatic Relations 1871-1945 will be of value to individuals interested in the history of Germany, Modern Europe, and International Relations.
was at Nuremberg, because the court did not admit witnesses for the defense. In
terms of the traditional requirements for fair and due process of law, this was the
most serious flaw in the Jerusalem proceedings. Moreover, while judgment in the
Author: Hannah Arendt
Category: Social Science
The controversial journalistic analysis of the mentality that fostered the Holocaust, from the author of The Origins of Totalitarianism Sparking a flurry of heated debate, Hannah Arendt’s authoritative and stunning report on the trial of German Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann first appeared as a series of articles in The New Yorker in 1963. This revised edition includes material that came to light after the trial, as well as Arendt’s postscript directly addressing the controversy that arose over her account. A major journalistic triumph by an intellectual of singular influence, Eichmann in Jerusalem is as shocking as it is informative—an unflinching look at one of the most unsettling (and unsettled) issues of the twentieth century.