Covering leg 94 of the cruises of the drilling vessel Glomar Challenger, Norfolk,
Virginia, to St. John's, Newfoundland, June-Aug. 15. DIATOM
BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE MIDDLE- AND HIGH - LATITUDE NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN , DEEP ...
On the architecture of high - latitude continental margins : the influence of ice -
sheet and sea - ice processes in the Polar North Atlantic J . A . DOWDESWELL " ,
C . Ó COFAIGH , J . TAYLOR ? , N . H . KENYON3 , J . MIENERT4 & M . WILKEN4
Author: J. A. Dowdeswell
Publisher: Geological Society of London
This book examines the process and patterns of glacier-influenced sedimentation on high-latitude continental margins and the geophysical and geological signatures of the resulting sediments and landforms. It contains a range of papers concerning modern and glacially-influenced sedimentation in high-latitude areas from both hemispheres, many of which discuss the relationship between glacier dynamics and the sediments and landforms preserved in the glacimarine environment.
Because of the close coupling of high - latitude surface waters to North Atlantic
Deep Water in the modern ocean , the history of sea - surface temperature ( SST )
oscillations across the high - latitude North Atlantic is relevant to an ...
There is some tendency for tropical cyclones to move under cut-off upper-air lows
at high latitudes. Hurricanes weaken rapidly at latitudes north of 40°N. The
recurving hurricane represents one class of North Atlantic hurricane tracks.
Author: James B. Elsner
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Called the greatest storms on the planet, hurricanes of the North Atlantic Ocean often cause tremendous social and economic upheaval in the United States, Mexico, and the Caribbean. And with the increasing development of coastal areas, the impact of these storms will likely increase. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of North Atlantic hurricanes and what they mean to society. It is intended as an intermediary between hurricane climate research and the users of hurricane information. Topics include the climatology of tropical cyclones in general and those of the North Atlantic in particular; the major North Atlantic hurricanes, focusing on U.S. landfalling storms; the prediction models used in forecasting; and societal vulnerability to hurricanes, including ideas for modeling the relationship between climatological data and analysis in the social and economic sciences.
0.00 T north H - 0.25 T cold -0.50 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 Time FIGURE
7.17 Northern and cold reservoir temperatures in a " climate change " experiment
with Stommel's model . temperatures in the high - latitude North Atlantic might ...
Author: Walter A. Robinson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
In the process of building and using models to comprehend the dynamics of the atmosphere, ocean and climate, the reader will learn how the different components of climate systems function, interact with each other, and vary over time. Topics include the stability of climate, Earths energy balance, parcel dynamics in the atmosphere, the mechanisms of heat transport in the climate system, and mechanisms of climate variability. Special attention is given to the effects of climate change.
5.4 The Ocean's Overturning Circulation The evidence surveyed in the last
section, together with the physics of oceanic deep convection discussed in
Chapter 4, shows that the high latitude North Atlantic WWS imports warm water
from lower ...
Author: G. T. Csanady
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Air-Sea Interaction: Laws and Mechanisms provides a comprehensive account of how the atmosphere and the ocean interact to control the global climate, what physical laws govern this interaction, and what are its prominent mechanisms. It is mainly directed towards graduate students and research scientists in meteorology, oceanography, and environmental engineering. The book will be of value on entry level courses in meteorology and oceanography, and also to the broader physics community interested in the treatment of transfer laws, and thermodynamics of the atmosphere and ocean.
Author: Richard W. BattarbeePublish On: 2009-01-26
in. the. North. Atlantic. Eystein Jansen, Carin Andersson, Matthias Moros, Kerim
H. Nisancioglu, Birgitte F. Nyland and Richard J. Telford ... (2004) found that the
thermal optimum is most pronounced at high northern latitudes in the oceans ...
Author: Richard W. Battarbee
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Whilst there is now overwhelming evidence that greenhouse-gaspollution is becoming the dominant process responsible for globalwarming, it is also clear that the climate system varies quitenaturally on different time-scales. Predicting the course of futureclimate change consequently requires an understanding of thenatural variability of the climate system as well as the effects ofhuman-induced change. This book is concerned with our currentunderstanding of natural climate change, its variability on decadalto centennial time-scales, the extent to which climate models ofdifferent kinds simulate past variability, and the role of pastclimate variability in explaining changes to natural ecosystems andto human society over the later part of the Holocene. The bookhighlights the need to improve not only our understanding of thephysical system through time but also to improve our knowledge ofhow people may have influenced the climate system in the past andhave been influenced by it, both directly and indirectly. This ground-breaking text addresses predictable modification inthe climate system in the context of global warming. Ideal forresearchers and advanced students, it explores current thinking onnatural climate change. Addresses the natural variability of the climate system in thecontext of global warming Contributes substantially to the ongoing discussion on globalwarming Integrates state of the art research and brings togethermodeling and data communities in a balanced way Considers questions of climate change on differenttime-scales “Natural climate variability and global warming isclearly an important book, well-focused and distinctive, withfundamental things to say about Holocene science and its interfacewith the practical problem of global warming. It is anauthoritative, up-to-date summary and synthesis of currentknowledge in this area and is attractively produced with clear,colour illustrations throughout. It is a ‘must’ for alluniversity libraries and our private book collections.”The Holocene, 2009.
Polonsky and Voskresenskaya (1996) showed that the coherent variability of the
northward heat transport resulting from changes in Ekman currents in the tropical North Atlantic, and the high-latitude SST changes in the North Atlantic are the ...
Author: Emin Özsoy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Recent decades have seen a degradation of the environmental quality in semi-enclosed seas, which are particularly sensitive to population pressures due to their naturally low flushing rates related to their geometry. The North Sea, Baltic Sea and the Black Sea are amongst the most seriously threatened seas in the Euro-Asian region. Each semi-enclosed sea has a distinct pattern of circulation, transport, mixing, associated with the particular geometry, topography, boundary processes, interior stratification, atmospheric forcing, ice fonnation, straits / sill controls, and the specific inputs of freshwater, nutrients and pollutants. The workshop investigated the distinctive physical and ecological characteristics of the three seas in a comparative manner, in order to identify the types of driving forces and dynamic controls operating on productivity, nutrient cycling, physical transport and mixing mechanisms. A comparative study of these controlling mechanisms would allow us to better understand ecosystem sensitivity in these different environments. The workshop presentations highlighted the complexity of the semi-enclosed seas related to the interaction amongst the physical, chemical and biological fields, and differences in time and space scales in each of the systems. Further, a strong climate signal exists in these systems, manifest in the interannual, interdecadal and longer term variability. Part of the variability appears connected with background climatic variability.
The occurrence of these species suggests cene of the North Atlantic possibly
retreated to that warm surface waters were present in the higher latitudes and a
major switch from siliceous Rockall Plateau region during the earliest Mio to ...
A case study from Stjernsund, northern Norway Nina Forster ... Surface currents:
NAC - North Atlantic Current, NCaC - North Cape Current, NCC - Norwegian
Coastal Current, NwAC - Norwegian Atlantic Current, WSC – West Spitzbergen ...
Author: Nina Forster
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Cold-water corals occur worldwide from high latitudes to tropical areas, in various settings from the deep-sea to shallow marine environments near the coast. The topic of this thesis is the establishment and extension of knowledge about environmental conditions controlling cold-water coral (CWC) mound development. From literature it is known that glacial-interglacial cycles drive development and geographic distribution of CWC mounds on a large scale. On the other hand, knowledge about the influence of small scale climatic and oceanographic changes during the Holocene is scarce. Thus, this thesis focuses on the investigation of the limited Holocene climatic and oceanographic changes and their effect on the process of mound genesis. For this purpose, a Holocene CWC mound setting in a sound in the Altafjord in northern Norway (70°N) -- the Stjernsund -- was chosen and the local benthic ecosystem was extensively analysed. Von den sub-arktischen hohen Breiten bis in warme tropische Zonen besiedeln Kaltwasserkorallen unseren Planeten. Sie haben sich verschiedenste Lebensräume erschlossen --- Von der Tiefsee bis zu marinen Flachwassergebieten an der Küste kann ihr Vorkommen beobachtet werden. Sie bilden faszinierende Ökosysteme die erst in den letzten Jahrzehnten intensiver erforscht wurden. Diese Arbeit widmet sich der tieferen Erforschung dieser Lebensräume. Im Fokus stehen dabei Umweltbedingungen, die die Entwicklung der Kaltwasserkorallenvorkommen kontrollieren. Umfangreiche frühere Untersuchungen haben bereits gezeigt, dass ihr Wachstum, als auch ihre geographische Verbreitung im Wesentlichen von Glazial-Interglazial-Zyklen gesteuert werden. Die kurzzeitlichen klimatischen und ozeanographischen Steuerungsfaktoren sind im Vergleich dazu jedoch nahezu unbekannt. Daher konzentriert sich diese Arbeit auf die Erforschung von kurzeitigen klimatischen und ozeanographischen Veränderungen, die insbesondere im Holozän zu beobachten sind, sowie deren mögliche Auswirkungen auf die Entwicklung von Kaltwasserkorallen Mounds. Hierzu wurde der holozäne Kaltwasserkorallen Mound im Stjernsund, ein Sund im Altafjord in Nordnorwegen (70°N) ausgewählt und dessen benthisches Ökosystem umfassend analysiert.
Ruddiman, W.F., and A. McIntyre (1977), "Late Quaternary Surface Ocean
Kinematics and Climatic Change in the High-Latitude North Atlantic," J. Geophys.
Res. 82,3877-3887. Ruddiman, W.F., and A. McIntyre (1979), "Warmth of the
Author: Burton G. Hurdle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
" ... as soon as one has traversed the greater part of the wild sea, one comes upon such a huge quantity of ice that nowhere in the whole world has the like been known." "This ice is of a wonderful nature. It lies at times quite still, as one would expect, with openings or large fjords in it; but sometimes its movement is so strong and rapid as to equal that of a ship running before the wind, and it drifts against the wind as often as with it." Kongespeilet - 1250 A.D. ("The Mirror of Kings") Modern societies require increasing amounts influence on the water mass and on the resulting of scientific information about the environment total environment of the region; therefore, cer tain of its characteristics will necessarily be in whieh they live and work. For the seas this information must describe the air above the sea, included.
showed the bomb 'pulse' when compared with pre-1958, i.e. pre-bomb, sea water
measurements. ... produced the first time history of bomb “C from the high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean from a 54a old mollusc specimen of the (Bivalvia) Arctica ...
Author: H.-G. Attendorn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Accelerating progress in the application of radioactive and stable isotope analysis to a varied range of geologicla and geochemical problems in geology has required a complete revision of Isotopes in the Earth Sciences, published in 1988. This new book comprises four parts: the first introduces isotopic chemistry and examines mass spectroscopic methods; the second eeals with radiometric dating methods. Part Three examines the importance of isotopes in climato-environmental studies, and increasingly significant area of research. The last part looks at extra-terrestrial matter, geothermometry and the isotopic geochemistry of the Earth's lithosphere. Post-graduate and post-doctoral researchers in geochemistry, as well as final year undergraduates in the earth and environmental sciences, will find Radioactive and Stable Isotope Geology an invaluable, uo-to-date and thorough treatment of the theory and practice of isotopie geology.
Other indexes of high-latitude climatic variability, including North Atlantic sea-
surface temperature (sst), ice rafting, and Atlantic deep circulation (Ruddiman et
al., 1989b; Raymo et al., 1989), are highly covariant with the isotopic record o\er
Author: Elisabeth S. Vrba
Publisher: Yale University Press
This book focuses on how climatic change during the last fifteen million years - especially the last three million - has affected human evolution and other evolutionary events. Leading evolutionists and physical geologists from all over the worldauthorities on such subjects as paleoceanography, palynology, mammalian paleontology, and paleoanthropology - address the relationship between climatic and biotic evolution, presenting and integrating the most up-to-date research in their fields. Among the subjects discussed are: global and regional climatic changes; tectonism and its effects on climate; the evolution of biomes and mammals; the ways climate might have influenced the origins of hominid species; and the evolution of hominid morphologies and behaviors. The book draws on the comparatively rich data base of the Late Neogene and includes many new data sets and hypotheses on paleoclimatic changes and on floral and mammalian evolution.
Based on these datums , a Pleistocene diatom zonation for the high - latitude North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas is proposed using high - latitude cold species
. The last occurrences of Thalassiosira nidulus and Proboscia curvirostris appear
Late Quaternary surface ocean kinematics and climatic change in the high- latitude North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res. 82:3877–3888. Ruddiman, W. F., and A.
McIntyre. 1981. The North Atlantic Ocean during the last deglaciation.
Author: Yvonne Herman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The Arctic region has long held a fascination for explorers and scientists of many countries. Despite the numerous voyages of exploration, the na ture of the central Arctic was unknown only 90 years ago; it was believed to be a shallow sea dotted with islands. During Nansen's historic voyage on the polarship Fram, which commenced in 1893, the great depth of the central basin was discovered. In the Soviet Union, investigation of the Arctic Ocean became national policy after 1917. Today research at several scientific institutions there is devoted primarily to the study of the North Polar Ocean and seas. The systematic exploration of the Arctic by the United States com menced in 1951. Research has been conducted year-round from drifting ice islands, which are tabular fragments of glacier ice that break away from ice shelves. Most frequently, ice islands originate off the northern coast of Ellesmere Island. These research platforms are occupied as weather sta tions, as well as for oceanographic and geophysical studies. Several inter national projects, conducted by Canadian, European, and U. S. groups, have been underway during the last three decades. Although much new data have accumulated since the publication of the Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Arctic Seas volume in 1974 (Yvonne Herman, ed. ), in various fields of polar research-including present-day ice cover, hydrogra phy, fauna, flora, and geology-many questions remain to be answered.
Surface water in subtropical gyres circulates clockwise in the northern
hemisphere and counterclockwise in the ... and the Atlantic's Gulf Stream (also
called the North Atlantic Current in high latitudes) and in the southern
hemisphere the Brazil ...
Author: Thomas M. Cronin
Publisher: Columbia University Press
"When combined with computer model simulations, paleoclimatic reconstructions are used to test hypotheses about the causes of climatic change, such as greenhouse gases, solar variability, earth's orbital variations, and hydrological, oceanic, and tectonic processes, This book is a comprehensive, state-of-the art synthesis of paleoclimate research covering all geological timescales, emphasizing topics that shed light on modern trends in the earth's climate." --Book Jacket.
All told , our results suggest a much more ice - free and dynamic high latitude
ocean than the CLIMAP reconstruction . ... Introduction The state of the sea
surface in the North Atlantic and Nordic Seas provide important constraints on the
Author: M. Kucera
MARGO - Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean surface summarizes the results of the MARGO international working group, with the aim to develop an updated and harmonised reconstruction of sea surface temperatures and sea-ice extent of the Last Glacial Maximum oceans. The MARGO approach differs from previous efforts by developing and consistently applying measures of various aspects of reconstruction reliability, and by combining faunal and geochemical proxies. In 14 papers, the volume provides a comprehensive review of earlier work and a series of new, proxy-specific reconstructions based on census counts of planktonic foraminifera, diatoms, radiolaria and dinoflagellate cysts as well as on Mg/Ca measurements in planktonic foraminifera. The approach of harmonising the calibration and application of different proxies is described in detail, various paleothermometry techniques and their results are compared and the challenge of treating sparsely sampled data as the basis for ocean circulation models is addressed. The use of stable oxygen isotope composition of foraminiferal shells as a proxy for past sea water composition is comprehensively reassessed, and a new approach to the transfer function paleothermometer is presented. This volume represents a landmark contribution to the understanding of ice-age oceanography as well as the proxies used to reconstruct past ocean states. The results will form the basis for forcing and validation of ocean circulation models. New regional reconstructions of Last Glacial Maximum ocean temperatures and sea ice cover Compilation of new calibration and fossil datasets as well as documentation of techniques and approaches to paleoenvironmental reconstructions Comparison of techniques, proxies and modelling approaches
... to changes in solar insolation, high-latitude glacial ice cover, North Atlantic sea
surface temperatures, and South Asian ... By region, West African climate was
most sensitive to cool North Atlantic SSTs which promoted annually cooler and ...
Author: A. Ivan Johnson
Publisher: CRC Press
Contains selected papers presented at a symposium at Jinja, Uganda in February 1993 which was organized by IDEAL, the International Decade for East African Lakes, a ten-year, multi- national, multi-disciplinary investigation of the biological, geological, chemical, and physical limnology of the East African Lakes, with an emphasis on the Great Lakes of the East African Rift Valley and the climatology and paleoclimatology of the Rift Valley itself. The 37 contributions address tectonic settings of the East African lakes, the East African climate, physical limnology, aquatic chemistry, food webs and fisheries, sedimentary processes, the impact of humans, and a historical note. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Author: Scripps Institution of OceanographyPublish On: 1978
DIATOM BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE MIDDLE - AND HIGH - LATITUDE NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN , DEEP SEA DRILLING PROJECT LEG 941 Jack G . Baldauf ,
U . S . Geological Survey , Menlo Park , California and Department of ...