Ethical Dilemmas for Critically Ill Babies

Ethical Dilemmas for Critically Ill Babies

This book covers important ethical questions that arise in neonatal intensive care units.

Author: Eduard Verhagen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789401773607

Category: Philosophy

Page: 96

View: 306

Most neonates who now survive intensive care would have died 50 years ago, and “nature” would have decided the outcomes, making ethical discussions about initiating or withholding resuscitation irrelevant. Medical developments in neonatology have changed the way we respond to diseases of neonates, to their illness, and to their parents. Not only as physicians, but also as a society. Decisions on when to start, withhold, or withdraw life-saving interventions in critically ill neonates are among the most difficult decisions in pediatric practice. These decisions are fraught with ethical dilemmas, for example deciding whether withholding intensive care –leading to death- is superior to uncertain survival with a risk of disability and the additional burden of intensive care. This book covers important ethical questions that arise in neonatal intensive care units. Questions such as, whether to intervene medically and whether we are good at predicting the outcome of fragile neonates; whether a medical intervention should be withheld or withdrawn, and who should be primarily responsible for these decisions and how?
Categories: Philosophy

Bioethics in the Pediatric ICU Ethical Dilemmas Encountered in the Care of Critically Ill Children

Bioethics in the Pediatric ICU  Ethical Dilemmas Encountered in the Care of Critically Ill Children

This book examines the many ethical issues that are encountered in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU).

Author: Laura Miller-Smith

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030009434

Category: Philosophy

Page: 164

View: 662

This book examines the many ethical issues that are encountered in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). It supports pediatricians, nurses, residents, and other providers in their daily management of critically ill children with the dilemmas that arise. It begins by examining the evolution of pediatric critical care, and who is now impacted by this advancing medical technology. Subsequent chapters explore specific ethical concerns and controversies that are commonly encountered. These topics include how to conduct end-of-life discussions with families facing a myriad of challenging choices. It goes on to explore the concept of futility, and what that does and does not mean in the pediatric ICU setting. Controversial subjects such as children as organ donors, particularly using donation after cardiac death, in addition to issues surrounding the declaration of brain death are covered. Additional chapters address resource allocation, and also analyze the use of long-term technology in chronically critically ill children. Chapters include case examples with guidance on how to work through similar difficulties and decision-making. While this book is specifically targeted for care providers at the ICU bedside, it is also of benefit to medical students, students in bioethics, practicing ethical consultants and families who are dealing with critically ill children.
Categories: Philosophy

Pediatric Ethics

Pediatric Ethics

This work examines the many ethical issues related to health care in children.

Author: Alan R. Fleischman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199354474

Category:

Page: 256

View: 949

This book examines the many ethical issues related to health and health care in children. It describes the field of Pediatric ethics, a unique and important aspect of the discipline of bioethics, the study of moral conduct in health care and the rational process for determining the best course of action in the face of conflicting choices. The book begins with an exploration of what it means to be a child in America and the unique kinship relationships and obligations engendered by the decision of parents to have a child, and it examines ethical principles and professional obligations related to the care of children. Each of the chapters in the book focuses on important ethical concerns. It begins with ethical issues in creating babies using reproductive technologies, and then continues with an analysis of the ethical issues in labor and delivery of a child. The book continues with an in depth analysis of the many hard choices faced by families and clinicians in the care of critically ill neonates, and then goes on to describe current controversies in caring for older children who are dying and their families, as well as ethical issues concerning adolescents, research ethics as it relates to children, issues concerning genetic testing, screening and biobanking, and surgical and medical enhancement of children. Each chapter has case examples to illustrate the real life concerns of patients, families and clinicians. The book is intended for students in pediatrics and ethics, as well as for practicing clinicians, and interested families.
Categories:

Nursing Care of the Critically Ill Child

Nursing Care of the Critically Ill Child

The creation of an ethical working environment in the pediatric critical care unit is
a necessary precondition for addressing ethical issues involved in
cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the limitation or withdrawal of life-sustaining
treatment, and ...

Author: Mary Fran Hazinski

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9780323020404

Category: Medical

Page: 1140

View: 765

Now completely up to date to meet the needs of today's pediatric nurses, Mary Fran Hazinski's Nursing Care of the Critically Ill Child, 3rd Edition, remains the foundational text of pediatric critical care nursing. Known for its outstanding organization and clear descriptions, this comprehensive reference details the unique care required for critically ill children with thorough discussions of physiology, pathophysiology, pharmacology, collaborative management, and nursing management. Ten new chapters, new advanced practice content, and new nurse contributors and reviewers ensure that this classic text continues to be the essential resource for the care of critically ill children. Details differences in caring for critically ill children as compared with caring for adults: how to modify assessment procedures, consider aspects of psychosocial development, and examine developmental aspects of various body systems. Provides comprehensive coverage of physiology, pathophysiology, pharmacology, and nursing management related to care of the critically ill child. Includes detailed Nursing Care Plans for select disorders. Contains helpful appendices such as pediatric drug dosages, central venous catheter care, and pediatric fluid requirements. Features Evolve online resources with additional content for further study of related topics, including tables for ease of recollection of material and additional references. Contains 10 all-new chapters, including Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics; Shock, Cardiac Arrest, and Resuscitation; Mechanical Support of Cardiopulmonary Function; Fluid, Electrolyte, and Endocrine Problems; Immunology and Infectious Disorders; Transplantation and Organ Donation; Toxicology/Poisonings; Fundamentals of Quality Improvement and Patient Safety; Clinical Informatics; and Ethical Issues in Pediatric Critical Care Features nurse contributors and reviewers for every chapter, making this edition a truly collaborative text. Provides information vital to the advanced practice nurse, such as assessment tools and severity of illness management. Includes numerous Pearls that highlight practical wisdom from experts in pediatric critical care nursing.
Categories: Medical

Legal and Ethical Issues

Legal and Ethical Issues

Decision - Making Process The courts deciding difficult handicapped and
critically ill newborn cases look to the CAPTA regulations and other legal
standards ( see Part B ) . Substituted Judgment Courts use the " substituted
judgment ...

Author: Susan Westrick Killion

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 1556425058

Category: Medical

Page: 169

View: 161

Quick Look Nursing: Legal and Ethical Issues, authored by two successful nurse attorneys, examines topics from basic legal foundations to complicated legal issues challenging nurses every day. Important topics chosen for the book include a wide range of legal and ethical issues from basic concepts, such as professional regulation of licensure, to bioethical issues, such as assisted suicide. It is written to provide nursing students, nursing faculty, and nursing professionals with an organized and manageable format covering the essential components of legal and ethical issues to make learning and teaching easier.Section One includes subjects related to legal risks in the nursing practice and presents a review of the legal system, negligence and malpractice, standards of care, insurance, regulation of practice and refusing an assignment. Section Two examines topics related to liability in patient care including confidential communications, informed consent pain control, patient teaching, clients with AIDS, and abusive situations. Documentation issues are presented in Section Three including computerized records, implementing orders incident reports, and forensics. Employment issues are dealt with in Section Four including contracts, unionization, employment status liability, sexual harassment, violence, and employees with AIDS and needlesticks. Section Five targets ethical issues including unethical conduct, patients’ rights, maternal vs. fetal rights, and assisted suicide.This extraordinary text is a concise yet scholarly presentation of material that is essential for professional practice. Each chapter condenses content that would normally be included in an hour lecture format and incorporates the essentials.
Categories: Medical

The Lazarus Case

The Lazarus Case

In this volume, John Lantos weaves a story that captures the dilemmas of modern medical practice.

Author: John D. Lantos

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 0801887704

Category: Law

Page: 183

View: 618

In this volume, John Lantos weaves a story that captures the dilemmas of modern medical practice. He draws on his experience in neonatal medicine, paediatrics and medical ethics to explore ethical dilemmas through one poignant representative situation.
Categories: Law

Pediatric Neurocritical Care

Pediatric Neurocritical Care

Seeking Ethics Consultation Ethical dilemmas are inevitable when dealing with
sick children, particularly critically ill children with neurologic problems.
Physicians and medical teams often need ethical advice on decisions or conflicts
within or ...

Author: Nicholas S. Abend, MD

Publisher: Demos Medical Publishing

ISBN: 9781617050695

Category: Medical

Page: 350

View: 769

"Pediatric Neurocritical Care is by far the most comprehensive book I have read dealing with this topic... This text will provide an excellent reference for those interested in the pediatric intensive care cases or pediatrics in general. It is written very well and is chock-full of information that Practioners in a pediatric ICU setting would use." --Donna Jacobs, R. EEG T., CNIM, The Neurodiagnostic Journal Caring for children with neurocritical illness often requires multi-specialty collaboration and the understanding of an ever-expanding body of data. This book gives clinicians the up-to-date, concise, and clinically relevant guidance they need to provide optimal care to children with these acute neurologic disorders. The chapters in Pediatric Neurocritical Care are authored by experts in each individual topic, and co-edited by a neurologist and intensivist to ensure that all topics have been fully addressed from both perspectives. The book covers the complete continuum of care from assessment, monitoring, and condition specific management through rehabilitation. Early chapters present differential diagnosis and management approaches to common overarching problems such as coma, headache, and elevated intracranial pressure, followed by chapters focusing on the evaluation and management of specific conditions including traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures, central nervous system infections, and demyelinating disorders. The final chapters address important associated psychological, social, and ethical issues. To reflect the full spectrum of specialties involved in the burgeoning field of pediatric neurocritical care, the book brings together an international group of experts from multiple disciplines including critical care medicine, anesthesiology, neurology, neurosurgery, rehabilitation medicine, psychology, and pediatric subspecialties. Pediatric Neurocritical Care features: Every topic is addressed from a neurologic and critical care perspective. Comprehensive coverage includes the evaluation of common overarching problems and management of specific conditions, in addition to discussion of related psychological, ethical, and social issues. Chapters are written by internationally known experts from the fields of critical care medicine, anesthesiology, neurology, neurosurgery, rehabilitation medicine, and many affiliated specialties.
Categories: Medical

Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research With Children and Adolescents

Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research With Children and Adolescents

Complications of vascular catheterization in critically ill children. Critical Care
Medicine, 12, 1015-1017. Sroufe, L. A. 8: Cooper, R. G. (1987). Child
development: Its nature and course. New York: Knopf. Turkeltaub, P. C., 8:
Gergen, P. I. (1989).

Author: Kimberly Hoagwood

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317824602

Category: Psychology

Page: 336

View: 120

Studies involving children with mental, emotional, or behavioral problems--or their families--have to meet certain standards of research ethics. This book contains chapters on the kinds of ethical dilemmas that typically occur in different types of studies of children, and then presents 65 real-world cases from experts who study children's mental health. These experts offer practical suggestions for how to handle these dilemmas. Chapters on the perspectives of parents, regulators, and bioethicists provide additional points of view on these issues. Written in down-to-earth language, this book will be useful for professionals who study children, for those who train students in research methods, and for parents who are thinking about participating in research studies. In attempting to bridge the apparent gap between ethics and science, the editors close this volume on a note commonly sounded by researchers: more research is needed. Yet in this area, a new kind of research is required. The science of scientific ethics must be developed and expanded, and better understanding of the determinants and circumstances under which children can comprehend and evaluate risks and benefits is needed. Likewise, fuller knowledge of the contextual factors affecting children's and families' consent to participate in research is essential. In particular, development of scales to assess children's ability to comprehend risk-benefit issues, studies of families' reactions to research procedures, and empirical data on the impact of various forms of participant reimbursement will advance both science and ethics. This volume should spur further research, serving as a guide for current investigators, participating families, institutional review boards, and policymakers who shape the research enterprise.
Categories: Psychology

Fanaroff and Martin s Neonatal Perinatal Medicine E Book

Fanaroff and Martin s Neonatal Perinatal Medicine E Book

Mitchell C: Care of severely impaired infant raises ethical issues, Am Nurse 16:9,
1984. ... Snowdon C et al: Making sense of randomization; responses of parents
of critically ill babies to random allocation of treatment in a critical trial, Soc Sci ...

Author: Richard J. Martin

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9780323081115

Category: Medical

Page: 2008

View: 963

Fanaroff and Martin’s Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine covers everything you need to improve the quality of life and long-term outcomes of your patients. Drs. Richard J. Martin, Avroy A. Fanaroff, and Michele C. Walsh, along with a multi-disciplinary team of contributors guide you through the sweeping developments in diagnosis and treatment of the mother fetus, and neonate. The completely updated 9th edition keeps you current on the late preterm infant, the fetal origins of adult disease, neonatal anemia, genetic disorders, and more. Get comprehensive guidance on treating patients through a dual focus on neonatology and perinatology. See nuances and details in over 800 illustrations that depict disorders in the clinical setting and explain complex information. Find the information you need easily with indexing in both volumes that provides quick access to specific guidance. Spot genetic problems early and advise parents of concerns thanks to completely new section on this topic. Tackle the health problems associated with preterm births through a new chapter on The Late Preterm Infant. Understand the fetal origins of adult disease through a new chapter that focuses on conditions that originate in the womb. Stay current on the developments and research surrounding neonatal anemia from the entirely new chapter on Blood and Hematopoietic System highlights. Obtain more global perspectives and best practices from an increased number of international contributions in this edition.
Categories: Medical

Death Or Disability

Death Or Disability

Dominic Wilkinson combines philosophy, medicine, and science to explore the profound and contentious ethical issues facing those who work with critically ill children and infants.

Author: Dominic Wilkinson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199669431

Category: Medical

Page: 311

View: 769

Dominic Wilkinson combines philosophy, medicine, and science to explore the profound and contentious ethical issues facing those who work with critically ill children and infants. He addresses questions about the accuracy of predictions for future quality of life; about when to allow children to die; and about how much say parents should have.
Categories: Medical

Ethical and Legal Issues for Doctoral Nursing Students

Ethical and Legal Issues for Doctoral Nursing Students

The APN faces ethical problems in practice whether she works on an inpatient
unit and faces distress due to end of life issues and treatment refusal, works in a
NICU with critically ill newborns or in ambulatory care with abusive parents, ...

Author: Anne Griswold Peirce

Publisher: DEStech Publications, Inc

ISBN: 9781605950587

Category: Law

Page: 328

View: 815

Designed for ethics courses in nursing PhD and DNP programs, this book offers coverage of ethical patient care, care in vulnerable populations, legal influences on ethical care, ethical businesses practices, and research ethics that are discussed and analyzed by experts.
Categories: Law

Science and Practice of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Science and Practice of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

These issues are then set within the broader context of communication and
conflict resolution. The chapter ends by highlighting several ethical issues raised
in the context of organ procurement and research with critically ill children.

Author: Derek S. Wheeler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1848009216

Category: Medical

Page: 199

View: 380

The ? eld of critical care medicine is in the midst of a dramatic change. Technological and s- enti? c advances during the last decade have resulted in a fundamental change in the way we view disease processes, such as sepsis, shock, acute lung injury, and traumatic brain injury. Pediatric intensivists have been both witness to and active participants in bringing about these changes. As the understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases reaches the cellular and molecular levels, the gap between critical care medicine and molecular biology will disappear. It is imperative that all physicians caring for critically ill children in this new era have a th- ough understanding of the applicability of molecular biology to the care of these patients at the bedside in order to keep up with the rapidly evolving ? eld of critical care medicine. To the same extent, the practice of critical care medicine is in the midst of fundamental change. In keeping with the Institute of Medicine’s report “Crossing the Quality Chasm,” the care of critically ill and injured children needs to be safe, evidence-based, equitable, ef? cient, timely, and fami- centered [1,2]. In the following pages, these changes in our specialty are discussed in greater scope and detail, offering the reader fresh insight into not only where we came from, but also where we are going as a specialty.
Categories: Medical

An Introduction to Health Care Ethics

An Introduction to Health Care Ethics

Theological Foundations, Contemporary Issues, and Controversial Cases
Michael R. Panicola. are an important ethical consideration (remember the
principle of equitable distribution), they should not hinder us from intervening on
... Without question families of critically ill newborns suffer in many ways and must
overcome terrible hardships emotionally, economically, physically, socially, and
spiritually.

Author: Michael R. Panicola

Publisher: Saint Mary's Press

ISBN: 9780884899440

Category: Medical

Page: 310

View: 958

An ideal introduction to health care ethics for students who are unfamiliar with the subject area. Author-ethicists Michael Panicola, David Belde, John Paul Slosar, and Mark Repenshek have crafted a text grounded in rich theological and philosophical traditions and presented in an engaging manner. This text provides students with an understanding of the foundational aspects of health care ethics and leads them into a discussion of contemporary issues through the use of timely and challenging case studies. A unique focus on discernment and decision making brings the material to life for students.
Categories: Medical

Nursing Care of Children E Book

Nursing Care of Children   E Book

Ethical issues have become more complex as developing technology has
allowed more options in health care. ... The American Academy of Pediatrics, in
its statement Ethics and the Care of Critically Ill Infants and Children (1996), ...

Author: Susan R. James

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9780323293457

Category: Medical

Page: 880

View: 979

Master the art of caring for children with most effective, efficient, and affordable title on pediatric nursing care. Taking on a family focus, this student-friendly text teaches growth, development, and information on the major body system alterations. Plus, dramatically streamlined content and new learning tools make this new edition even more tailored to your learning needs. Expert reviews of chapter content ensure all chapters include current practices, terms, and updated information. Health Promotion boxes summarize information from the American Academy of Pediatrics to teach you how to perform a comprehensive assessment of well infants and children at various ages. Illustrated Procedure boxes include step-by-step instructions for common nursing tasks. Pathophysiology boxes explain changes in physiology that occur in a variety of diseases and disorders in children. Nursing process highlighted in nursing care plans and in-text discussions. Clinical Reference pages provide students with easy-to-find reference sections, including basic anatomy and physiology, pediatric differences, related laboratory and diagnostic tests, and commonly prescribed medications. Safety Alert boxes highlight patient safety as part of the QSEN initiative for better outcomes of nursing care. Updated Evidence-Based Practice boxes (formerly Using Research to Improve Practice) assist you in determining best practices in your future care of children. Patient-Centered Care boxes guide you in teaching the parents and child about self-care in the home and follow-up care in community-based health care settings. Streamlined Nursing Care Plans have been reformatted to make them easier to read and use. Updated photos throughout the book keep the text up-to-date and visually appealing. Key concepts are highlighted in the book and their definitions are provided in a glossary.
Categories: Medical

Ethical Issues in Cancer Patient Care

Ethical Issues in Cancer Patient Care

Freedman B, Fuks A, Weijer C. In loco parentis: minimal risk as an ethical
threshold for research upon children. Hastings Center ... Ethical issues in
pediatric research. In Vanderpool H (ed). ... Treatment of critically ill newborns.
Pediatrics 1983 ...

Author: Peter Angelos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781475730449

Category: Medical

Page: 152

View: 567

This book addresses a variety of ethical issues that arise in the care of oncology patients. Many volumes have been written on medical ethics in the past 30 years. However, few have focused on ethical issues specific to the care of cancer patients. This book brings together such a focused examination. The contributors are experienced clinicians, ethicists, medical humanists, and medical educators. The issues raised have direct relevance to the care of oncology patients in treatment as well as research settings. The chapters address issues that are central to contemporary medical practice and medical ethics inquiry. Any practicing clinician will be well aware of the problems of communication and how uncertainty, cross-cultural issues, and religious influences can impact patient care. The limits of care and the role of advance directives and palliative care are common issues that must be addressed in treating patients at the end of life. For oncologists and oncology patients, participation in clinical trials may be a thomy topic, especially when phase I clinical trials are being considered. The impact of managed care and reimbursement issues cannot be avoided in the contemporary patient care and similarly cannot be neglected when considering the ethical ramifications raised. No discussion of ethics in oncology can be complete without attention to the specific challenges raised by the pediatric patient with cancer. All of these topics are explored by the contributors to this book.
Categories: Medical

School of Nursing

School of Nursing

... child , and adolescent development ; pediatric physiology / pathophysiology
encompassing the full spectrum of pediatric health care needs from the
essentially well child to the critically ill child ; family nursing theory , nutrition ,
ethical issues ...

Author: University of California, San Francisco. School of Nursing

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSF:31378008244694

Category: Nursing

Page:

View: 549

Categories: Nursing

An Ethical Framework for Complementary and Alternative Therapists

An Ethical Framework for Complementary and Alternative Therapists

16 DUTIES TOWARDS CHILDREN AND MENTALLY INCAPACITATED ADULTS
Key ethical issues Proxy decision - making and the scope of ' best interests '
Complementary or alternative approaches for seriously ill children Children as ...

Author: Julie Stone

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0415279003

Category: Psychology

Page: 285

View: 773

Julie Stone demonstrates that ethical issues are no less relevant to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners than to any other group of health professionals and she provides a detailed framework for practitioners thinking constructively about how ethics impact on their work.
Categories: Psychology

Pediatric Critical Care E Book

Pediatric Critical Care E Book

Optimal use must be made of the limited resources available to treat critically ill
children in developing countries. ... An ethical dilemma exists: children in rich
countries have access to intensive care, whereas in poor countries, we can either
 ...

Author: Bradley P. Fuhrman

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9780323081702

Category: Medical

Page: 1776

View: 989

Provide the latest in superior quality care for critically ill children with the full-color, updated 4th Edition of Fuhrman and Zimmerman’s Pediatric Critical Care. In print, and now online, Drs. Bradley P. Fuhrman and Jerry J. Zimmerman use a comprehensive, organ-systems approach to help you manage a full range of disease entities. Get up-to-the-minute knowledge of topics such as acute lung injury, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and more. Implement new clinical techniques and diagnostic tests, weigh the varying perspectives of six associate editors with expertise in the field, reference 1,000+ illustrations to aid diagnosis, and keep sharp with online access to board-style review questions. This definitive title will ensure that you consistently deliver the very best intensive care to your pediatric patients. Focus on the development, function, and treatment of a wide range of disease entities with the text’s clear, logical, organ-system approach. Keep all members of the pediatric ICU team up to date with coverage of topics particularly relevant to their responsibilities. Keep current with the latest developments in palliative care, mass casualty/epidemic disease, acute respiratory failure, non-invasive ventilation, neurocritical care, neuroimaging, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, acute lung injury, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and much more. Quickly find the information you need with sections newly reorganized for easier access. Gain the perspectives of six expert associate editors on all the new developments in the field. Understand complex concepts quickly and conclusively with a brand new full-color format and more than 1,000 illustrations. Search the full text, download the image library, and access online board review questions targeting every relevant topic, all at www.expertconsult.com.
Categories: Medical

Law and Ethics

Law and Ethics

... and practice • Understand how ethical dilemmas occur and the basis on which
ethical decisions can be made • Critically evaluate ... Traditionally these have
been abortion and the treatment of the terminally ill . But now it is increasingly the
case that issues such as ' designer babies ' , cloning and developments in human
 ...

Author: Judith Hendrick

Publisher: Nelson Thornes

ISBN: 0748775412

Category: Medical

Page: 289

View: 420

"...This engaging text demonstrates the importance of law and ethics to practitioners' approach to health and illness, their care practice and the UK health care system" -- back cover.
Categories: Medical

Neonatal Bioethics

Neonatal Bioethics

The Moral Challenges of Medical Innovation John D. Lantos, William L. Meadow.
of the Han dynasty. ... Scientific discoveries and technological inventions enabled
us, for the first time in human history, to save the lives of critically ill newborns.

Author: John D. Lantos

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801889004

Category: Medical

Page: 192

View: 398

Tracing the field's recent history, notable advances, and considerable challenges yet to be faced, the authors present neonatal bioethics as a paradigm of complex conversation among physicians, philosophers, policy makers, judges, and legislators which has led to responsible societal oversight of a controversial medical innovation.
Categories: Medical