This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain.
Author: Pedro A. Prieto
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI or EROEI) is the amount of energy acquired from a particular energy source divided by the energy expended, or invested, in obtaining that energy. EROI is an essential and seemingly simple measure of the usable energy or “energy profit” from the exploitation of an energy source, but it is not so easy to determine all of the energy expenditures that should be included in the calculation. Because EROI values are generally low for renewable energy sources, differences in these estimates can lead to sharply divergent conclusions about the viability of these energy technologies. This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain. The analysis includes all of the factors that limit and adjust the real electricity output through one full-year cycle, and all of the fossil fuel inputs required to achieve these results. The authors’ comprehensive analysis of energy inputs, which assigns energy cost estimates to all financial expenditures, yields EROI values that are less than half of those claimed by other investigators and by the solar industry. Sensitivity analysis is used to test various assumptions in deriving these EROI estimates. The results imply that the EROI of current, large-scale PV systems may be too low to seamlessly support an energy and economic transition away from fossil fuels. Given the pervasiveness of fossil fuel subsidies in the modern economy, a key conclusion is that all components of the system that brings solar power to the consumer, from manufacturing to product maintenance and life cycle, must be improved in terms of energy efficiency. The materials science of solar conversion efficiency is only one such component. Sunny Spain represented an ideal case study as the country had the highest penetration of solar PV energy at 2.3 percent of total national demand as well as state-of-the-art expertise in solar power including grid management of intermittent, modern renewable systems. This book, written by a uniquely qualified author team consisting of the chief engineer for several major photovoltaic projects in Spain and the world’s leading expert on the concept and application of EROI, provides a comprehensive understanding of the net energy available to society from energy sources in general and from functioning PV installations under real-world conditions in particular. The authors provide critical insight into the capacity of renewable energy sources to fill the foreseeable gap between world energy demand and depletion rates for fossil fuels. · Presents the first comprehensive study of the EROI of large-scale solar PV systems in a developed country · Uses real-world operational data rather than laboratory approximations and extrapolations · Describes the dependence of one alternative energy source on the goods and services of a fossil-fueled economy · Has global implications for the potential of renewable energy sources to replace dwindling reserves of fossil fuels · Written with the first-hand knowledge of the chief, on-site engineer for many solar installations in Spain together with the leader in the development and application of the concept of EROI
In this book, you will learn how these measures of “progress” are completely dependent on the balance that can be achieved between energy costs (inputs) and gains.
Author: Charles A.S. Hall
Category: Business & Economics
This authoritative but highly accessible book presents the reader with a powerful framework for understanding the critical role of the energy return on investment (EROI) in the survival and well-being of individuals, ecosystems, businesses, economies and nations. Growth and development are fundamental and ubiquitous processes at all scales, from individuals to food crops to national economies. While we are all familiar with the concepts of economic growth and living standards as measured by gross domestic product (GDP), we often take for granted the energy use that underpins GDP and our expectations for year-on-year growth. In this book, you will learn how these measures of “progress” are completely dependent on the balance that can be achieved between energy costs (inputs) and gains. Nothing is made or moved without an energy surplus, and it is the EROI of available energy sources more than any other single factor that determines the shape of civilization. Nearly all politics and economics assume that policy and market forces are the levers upon which future outcomes will hinge. However, this book presents many examples of historical and current events that can be explained much more clearly from an energetic perspective. In addition, a future scenario is developed that gives a central place to EROI in assessing the potential of governmental and private initiatives to substitute so-called renewable energy sources for diminishing stocks of fossil fuels. When cheap fossil fuels are no longer available in the abundance needed to mask economic problems and power business as usual, it will be EROI more than the plethora of “green” technologies that creates the boundary conditions for a sustainable future.
The study assumed that apart from the original 800 t of UNF only depleted uranium was available as a feed. Therefore for each subsequent scenario only fuel that was derived from the previous fuel cycle scenario was considered.
This report presents an evaluation of the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) from recycling an initial batch of 800 t/y of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through a Recycle Center under a number of different fuel cycle scenarios. The study assumed that apart from the original 800 t of UNF only depleted uranium was available as a feed. Therefore for each subsequent scenario only fuel that was derived from the previous fuel cycle scenario was considered. The scenarios represent a good cross section of the options available and the results contained in this paper and associated appendices will allow for other fuel cycle options to be considered.
This is a satisfactory relationship, but it decreases with a greater transport distance. Such is the case when chips manufactured in Croatia, due to the lack of heat plants, are transported over long distances to neighbouring countries.
Author: Zdravko Pandur
Energy cannot be produced without consumption of some part of the energy, and the proportions in which this occurs are a key indicator of the efficiency of the production process. Energy return on investment (EROI) of energy production shows the relationship between obtained and invested energy in the production process. This relationship is a key factor in sustainable global energy supply. Wood chips and one-metre firewood are used to produce thermal energy. Amount of energy obtained by burning depends on the moisture content and the features of the energy plant. This chapter deals with the issue of the amount of energy required to produce in the process of wood chips and one-metre firewood production and its transport to the heating plant. When calculating the energy balance, it is important to include as many input parameters as possible (parameters of energy consumption), which represents an almost impossible task because one parameter directly binds several others. According to several authors, the relationship between obtained and invested energy or EROI for energy wood is 30:1 which is a better ratio than the production of oil, for which relationship between obtained and invested energy is about 20:1. The results of study show that most of the energy during the production and supply of energy wood products from final felling of oak stands is used for fuel for machinery and vehicles in the production process. Ultimately, the relationship between obtained and invested energy is approximately 25:1 in the case of moisture content in the wood chips in the limit (market) value of 35% and the mean distance truck transportation of wood chips of 50 km. The relationship of obtained and invested energy used for one-metre firewood is bigger than 25:1 because of less invested energy which does not include machines like wood chipper. This is a satisfactory relationship, but it decreases with a greater transport distance. Such is the case when chips manufactured in Croatia, due to the lack of heat plants, are transported over long distances to neighbouring countries.
Three farms were studied, one organic and two conventional. The organic farm had an EROI of 11.3 and the conventional farms 14.1 and 15.0. Organic sugar beet can perhaps serve as inputs to ethanol production.
Abstract: In near future it is essential for human society to switch its primary energy use from finite sources to renewable ones. Ethanol has been claimed to be a potential candidate to replace oil use to great extent. This study illustrates that ethanol production has the potential to rely on organic agriculture and thereby to reduce reliance on fossil fuels. Case studies were carried out by examining three farms (2 conventional, 1 organic) in Austria who are mainly producing sugar beet. We found that organic sugar beet production provided an overall energy return on investment (EROI) of 11.3 whereas the conventional farming practice showed an EROI of 14.1 and 15, respectively. Our study indicates that organic sugar beet production shows potential to substitute conventional industrial sugar beet production to provide inputs to ethanol production. By using organically produced sugar beets as inputs to the ethanol production, fossil fuels can perhaps be avoided to a large extent in the production process, thus, it may be possible to mitigate some of the environmental impacts associated with ethanol production. Larger studies are however needed to better visualise such results. Highlights: This study calculates the EROI of sugar beet production in Austria. Three farms were studied, one organic and two conventional. The organic farm had an EROI of 11.3 and the conventional farms 14.1 and 15.0. Organic sugar beet can perhaps serve as inputs to ethanol production.
This report provides a methodology and requisite data to assess the potential Energy Return On Investment (EROI) for nuclear fuel cycle alternatives, and applies that methodology to a limited set of used fuel recycle scenarios.
This report provides a methodology and requisite data to assess the potential Energy Return On Investment (EROI) for nuclear fuel cycle alternatives, and applies that methodology to a limited set of used fuel recycle scenarios. This paper is based on a study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a parallel evaluation by AREVA Federal Services LLC, both of which were sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program. The focus of the LLNL effort was to develop a methodology that can be used by the FCT program for such analysis that is consistent with the broader energy modeling community, and the focus of the AREVA effort was to bring industrial experience and operational data into the analysis. This cooperative effort successfully combined expertise from the energy modeling community with expertise from the nuclear industry. Energy Return on Investment is one of many figures of merit on which investment in a new energy facility or process may be judged. EROI is the ratio of the energy delivered by a facility divided by the energy used to construct, operate and decommission that facility. While EROI is not the only criterion used to make an investment decision, it has been shown that, in technologically advanced societies, energy supplies must exceed a minimum EROI. Furthermore, technological history shows a trend towards higher EROI energy supplies. EROI calculations have been performed for many components of energy technology: oil wells, wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, biofuels, and nuclear reactors. This report represents the first standalone EROI analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing (or recycling) facilities.
RETURN. ON. INVESTMENT. The efficiency of many energy saving converts that
paybaok period Into armu- Items Is quoted In terms of payback al percentage return on investment, al- perlod— the number of years an energy lowing you to ...
Popular Mechanics inspires, instructs and influences readers to help them master the modern world. Whether it’s practical DIY home-improvement tips, gadgets and digital technology, information on the newest cars or the latest breakthroughs in science -- PM is the ultimate guide to our high-tech lifestyle.
EROI = useful outputenergy/input energy This raises a problem: Does energy return on investment includes the energy consumed in heating system,
transportation and so on by the employees in energy production process?
Unfortunately, the ...
Author: Menggang Li
Publisher: Springer Nature
Category: Business & Economics
This book presents a range of recent advances concerning industrial restructuring strategies, industrial organization, industrial policy, departmental economic research, industrial competitiveness, regional industrial structure, national industrial economic security theory and empirical research. Successfully combining theory and practice, the book gathers the outcomes of the “6th International Conference on Industrial Economics System and Industrial Security Engineering”, which was held at the University of Maryland, USA.
References  Dale M, Raugei M, Fthenakis V, Barnhart C: Energy return on investment (EROI) of solar PV: an attempt at reconciliation, Proc IEEE3(7):995–
999, 2015.  Hall CAS: Migration and metabolism in a temperate stream
Author: Trevor M. Letcher
Publisher: Academic Press
A Comprehensive Guide to Solar Energy Systems: With Special Focus on Photovoltaic Systems, the most advanced and research focused text on all aspects of solar energy engineering, is a must have edition on the present state of solar technology, integration and worldwide distribution. In addition, the book provides a high-level assessment of the growth trends in photovoltaics and how investment, planning and economic infrastructure can support those innovations. Each chapter includes a research overview with a detailed analysis and new case studies that look at how recent research developments can be applied. Written by some of the most forward-thinking professionals, this book is an invaluable reference for engineers. Contains analysis of the latest high-level research and explores real world application potential in relation to developments Uses system international (SI) units and imperial units throughout to appeal to global engineers Offers measurable data written by a world expert in the field on the latest developments in this fast moving and vital subject
Oil's extremely high energy return on investment is what makes it such a great
fuel. Under good conditions, very little energy is required to extract and process it
relative to all other energy sources. However, its EROI has been steadily
Author: Austin Troy
Publisher: Yale University Press
Category: Cities and towns
"This book explores how cities around the world consume energy, assesses innovative ideas for reducing urban energy consumption, and discusses why energy efficiency will determine which cities thrive economically in the future"--Provided by publisher.
The energy return on investment (EROI) was determined for an integrated (i.e. combined animal husbandry and vegetable production) USDA Certified Organic, Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) farm in Scott County Kentucky for the calendar ...
Author: Matthew Stewart Deason
The energy return on investment (EROI) was determined for an integrated (i.e. combined animal husbandry and vegetable production) USDA Certified Organic, Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) farm in Scott County Kentucky for the calendar year 2014. The resulting EROI was calculated at 0.13 which corresponds to 7.7 units of input energy for each caloric unit of output energy. The highest energy inputs (representing> 80% of the model) were indirect labor, equipment, liquid fuels, electricity and poultry feed. The highest energy outputs (representing> 80% of the model) were beef, sweet corn, broilers, eggs, potatoes, sweet potatoes, beans, broccoli, tomatoes, turkey, and yellow squash. Modern US agricultural practices and food delivery systems are energy intense, representing more than 15% of the total US energy consumption. Comparatively, typical livestock operations can require EROIs as low as 0.02 corresponding to 50 units of input energy for each calorie produced.
... energy conservation measures that could result in energy and money savings. Return on Investment (ROD through Energy Management Managers in most
business organizations are familiar with the concept of return on investment (ROI)
8.6 The energy return on investment (EROI) within the energy grammar The
concept of the energy return on investment (EROI) (at times also referred to as
the energy return on energy invested, EROEI) has been put forward in the field of
Author: Mario Giampietro
Category: Business & Economics
The demands placed on land, water, energy and other natural resources are exacerbated as the world population continues to increase together with the expectations of economic growth. This, combined with concerns over environmental change, presents a set of scientific, policy and management issues that are critical for sustainability. Resource Accounting for Sustainability Assessment: The nexus between energy, food, water and land use offers an approach for multi-scale, integrated assessment of this nexus. It presents a comprehensive and original method of resource accounting for integrated sustainability assessments. The approach is illustrated with three detailed case studies: the islands of Mauritius, the Indian state of Punjab, and the energy economy of South Africa. The relationships between flows of goods, services and materials in these case studies offer valuable insights. The book provides a much needed quality control on the information used in deliberative processes about policy and planning activities. This innovative book will be of interest to researchers, students and practitioners in the fields of sustainability science, international development, industrial ecology, sustainable resource management, geography and ecological economics.
“The energy return on investment for algal biocrude: Results for a research
production facility.” BioEnergy Research (July 2011). Berndt, Ernst R. From
Technocracy to Net Energy Analysis: Engineers, Economists and Recurring
Author: Andrew Nikiforuk
Publisher: Greystone Books
Category: Political Science
By the winner of the Rachel Carson Environment Book Award Ancient civilizations relied on shackled human muscle. It took the energy of slaves to plant crops, clothe emperors, and build cities. Nineteenth-century slaveholders viewed critics as hostilely as oil companies and governments now regard environmentalists. Yet the abolition movement had an invisible ally: coal and oil. As the world's most versatile workers, fossil fuels replenished slavery's ranks with combustion engines and other labor-saving tools. Since then, cheap oil has transformed politics, economics, science, agriculture, and even our concept of happiness. Many North Americans today live as extravagantly as Caribbean plantation owners. We feel entitled to surplus energy and rationalize inequality, even barbarity, to get it. But endless growth is an illusion. What we need, Andrew Nikiforuk argues in this provocative new book, is a radical emancipation movement that ends our master-and-slave approach to energy. We must learn to use energy on a moral, just, and truly human scale.
Energy. Return. on. Investment. (EROI). of. China. Whether or when peak oil
occurs there is another, related issue that we think may be as ... This is a suite of
specific concerns that surround the concept of Energy Return on Investment (
Author: Lianyong Feng
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The Chinese Oil Industry: History and Future presents a wealth of tables and figures with new data on Chinese fossil fuel production and consumption, together with a peak oil model to forecast future trends in energy supply and demand. Energy experts in China and the United States provide you with a unique overview of the entire Chinese oil industry. The authors discuss trends in production and consumption of global significance through to the middle of the 21st century, including the energy returned on energy invested (EROI) for China’s oil and gas. The role of oil in the industrialization of China is described as are four phases in the history of the Chinese oil industry. Detailed coverage of resources and exploration, pipeline development, refining and marketing, petroleum and natural gas pricing policies, and international cooperation is followed by consideration of conservation, renewable energy, and environmental impact. The authors also address the importance of coal and the probable future of coal production. - Offers a comprehensive view of the Chinese oil industry - Presents new and previously unpublished data - Covers history and future trends in production and consumption - Introduces a new peak oil model for China - Discusses EROI trend of oil and natural gas and its consequences for the Chinese economy - Written from an objective viewpoint by leading energy experts
Second, PBR tends to increase the discretion of the regulator to set prices in a
way that undermines an appropriate return on investment. Third, PBR does not
directly limit the monopoly rent of the regulated firm, which is one of the goals of ...
Author: Peter Rabensteiner
Publisher: Haupt Verlag AG
Category: Electric utilities
Die vorliegende Dissertation untersucht die kapitalbezogenen Aspekte von Investitionen im regulierten Energiesektor, wobei der Fokus auf dem elektrischen Übertragungsnetz liegt. Eine grundlegende Prämisse ist hierbei die "Endogenität des Risikos," wonach das Risikoprofil einer regulierten Investition von den Spezifikationen des regulatorischen Marktdesigns abhängt, durch welches stochastische Kosten und Einnahmen unter den beteiligten Stakeholdern - den Investoren, Konsumenten und Steuerzahlern - aufgeteilt werden. Das übergreifende Konzept ist ein multidimensionales regulatorisches Risiko-Framework, welches eine systematische Beurteilung des Einflusses von stochastischen Risiken auf den Marktwert und Cashflow von regulierten Unternehmen ermöglicht. Gemäss den Dimensionen des Risiko-Frameworks werden die einzelnen Risiken nach ihren systematischen und symmetrischen Eigenschaften sowie nach deren finanziellen Auswirkungen auf das regulierte Unternehmen charakterisiert. Auf Grundlage der konzeptionellen Aufarbeitung und einer umfassenden bibliografischen Übersicht über die vorhandene wissenschaftliche Literatur werden neue Forschungsansätze entwickelt, welche sich mit den identifizierten analytischen und empirischen Forschungslücken befassen: Erstens erlaubt eine kapitalmarktbasierte Kennzahl für das implizierte systematische Risiko, welches auf Basis fundamentaler Bewertungsmodelle und Marktpreise errechnet werden kann, eine robuste Schätzung der Kapitalkosten von börsennotierten Übertragungsfirmen. Eine auf diesem Ansatz beruhende Anpassung der erlaubten Rendite könnte ein wertvolles selbstkorrigierendes Instrumentarium für Regulatoren darstellen. Zweitens ergibt die Analyse einer hypothetischen grenzüberschreitenden Übertragungsleitung zwischen Polen und Österreich, welche aufgrund stündlicher Spotpreise an den jeweiligen Strombörsen durchgeführt wurde, eine Schätzung des systematischen Risikos nahe Nul.
Charles A. S. Hall, Robert Powers and William Schoenberg Abstract The issues
surrounding energy are far more important, ... Keywords Energy - oil - energy return on investment - investments - U.S. economy 5.1 Introduction The
Author: D. Pimentel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
The petroleum age began about 150 years ago. Easily available energy has s- ported major advances in agriculture, industry, transportation, and indeed many diverse activities valued by humans. Now world petroleum and natural gas s- plies have peaked and their supplies will slowly decline over the next 40–50 years until depleted. Although small amounts of petroleum and natural gas will remain underground, it will be energetically and economically impossible to extract. In the United States, coal supplies could be available for as long as 40–50 years, depending on how rapidly coal is utilized as a replacement for petroleum and natural gas. Having been comfortable with the security provided by fossil energy, especially petroleum and natural gas, we appear to be slow to recognize the energy crisis in the U. S. and world. Serious energy conservation and research on viable renewable - ergy technologies are needed. Several renewable energy technologies already exist, but sound research is needed to improve their effectiveness and economics. Most of the renewable energy technologies are in uenced by geographic location and face problems of intermittent energy supply and storage. Most renewable technologies require extensive land; a few researchers have even suggested that one-half of all land biomass could be harvested in order to supply the U. S. with 30% of its liquid fuel! Some optimistic investigations of renewable energy have failed to recognize that only 0. 1% of the solar energy is captured annually in the U. S.
Large reductions can be avoided if investments in the replacements for oil are
made well before the peak in world oil production . 25 20 Energy return on investment 15 10 1954 1964 1974 1984 1994 Year FIGURE 20.15 Energy Return on ...
Author: Robert K. Kaufmann
Publisher: McGraw-Hill College
Unlike any other introductory environmental science text, Robert Kaufmann and Cutler Cleveland's "Environmental Science" takes a fresh approach to the subject by weaving themes of energy and materials, economic systems, and policy throughout the entire text. A story of real science is simply told through examples of cutting-edge content, real-world applications, and a distinctive conceptual illustration program..
Energy Return on Investment Another way to compare forms of energy is to
calculate the amount of energy it takes to make a fuel relative to the final amount
of usable energy obtained from it. This ratio is called the energy return on investment, ...
Author: Lisa Chase
Publisher: University of New Hampshire Press
Category: Social Science
Throughout the United States, people are increasingly concerned about where their food comes from, how it is produced, and how its production affects individuals and their communities. The answers to these questions reveal a complex web of interactions. While large, distant farms and multinational companies dominate at national and global levels, innovative programs including farmers' markets, farm-to-school initiatives, and agritourism are forging stronger connections between people and food at local and regional levels. At all levels of the food system, energy use, climate change, food safety, and the maintenance of farmland for the future are critical considerations. The need to understand food systems--what they are, who's involved, and how they work (or don't)--has never been greater. Food, Farms, and Community: Exploring Food Systems takes an in-depth look at critical issues, successful programs, and challenges for improving food systems spanning a few miles to a few thousand miles. Case studies that delve into the values that drive farmers, food advocates, and food entrepreneurs are interwoven with analysis supported by the latest research. Examples of entrepreneurial farms and organizations working together to build sustainable food systems are relevant to the entire country--and reveal results that are about much more than fresh food.