border, with the exception of notable works by James Sandos, Gabriela Recio,
and Peter Andreas, very little scholarship considers its history there.9 Rachel St.
John's rightfully acclaimed Line in the Sand: A History of the Western U.S.-Mexico
Author: George T. Díaz
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Category: Social Science
Present-day smuggling across the U.S.-Mexico border is a professional, often violent, criminal activity. However, it is only the latest chapter in a history of illicit business dealings that stretches back to 1848, when attempts by Mexico and the United States to tax commerce across the Rio Grande upset local trade and caused popular resentment. Rather than acquiesce to what they regarded as arbitrary trade regulations, borderlanders continued to cross goods and accepted many forms of smuggling as just. In Border Contraband, George T. Díaz provides the first history of the common, yet little studied, practice of smuggling across the U.S.-Mexico border. In Part I, he examines the period between 1848 and 1910, when the United States' and Mexico's trade concerns focused on tariff collection and on borderlanders' attempts to avoid paying tariffs by smuggling. Part II begins with the onset of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, when national customs and other security forces on the border shifted their emphasis to the interdiction of prohibited items (particularly guns and drugs) that threatened the state. Díaz's pioneering research explains how greater restrictions have transformed smuggling from a low-level mundane activity, widely accepted and still routinely practiced, into a highly profitable professional criminal enterprise.
Early Montanan Experiences with Transnational Natives and the Formation of
Latin Prejudice, 1880–1885,” in Smugglers, Brothels, and Twine: Historical
Perspectives on Contraband and Vice in North America's Borderlands, ed. Elaine
Author: Holly M. Karibo
Publisher: University of Texas Press
An extensive history examining how North American nations have tried (and often failed) to police their borders, Border Policing presents diverse scholarly perspectives on attempts to regulate people and goods at borders, as well as on the ways that individuals and communities have navigated, contested, and evaded such regulation. The contributors explore these power dynamics though a series of case studies on subjects ranging from competing allegiances at the northeastern border during the War of 1812 to struggles over Indian sovereignty and from the effects of the Mexican Revolution to the experiences of smugglers along the Rio Grande during Prohibition. Later chapters stretch into the twenty-first century and consider immigration enforcement, drug trafficking, and representations of border policing in reality television. Together, the contributors explore the powerful ways in which federal authorities impose political agendas on borderlands and how local border residents and regions interact with, and push back against, such agendas. With its rich mix of political, legal, social, and cultural history, this collection provides new insights into the distinct realities that have shaped the international borders of North America.
However, in the strictest sense of the law, these micro trans-border transactions
are acts of contraband, defined as illegal by state laws. For instance, according to
the Ethiopian anticontraband proclamation, contraband is defined as “an illegal ...
Author: Inocent Moyo
This book looks at the ways African borders impact war and conflict, as well as the ways continental integration could contribute towards cooperation, peace and well-being in Africa. African borders or borderlands can be a source of problems and opportunity. There is often a historical, geospatial and geopolitical architecture rooted in trajectories of war, conflict and instability, which could be transformed into those of peace, regional and continental integration and development. An example is the cross-border and regional response to the Boko Haram insurgency in West Africa. This book engages with cross-border forms of cooperation and opportunity in Africa. It considers initiatives and innovations which can be put in place or are already being employed on the ground, within the current regional and continental integration projects. Another important element is that of cross-border informality, which similarly provides a ready resource that, if properly harnessed and regulated, could unleash the development potential of African borders and borderlands. Students and scholars within Geography, International Relations and Border Studies will find this book useful. It will also benefit civil society practitioners, policymakers and activists in the NGO sector interested in issues such as migration, social cohesion, citizenship and local development.
United States, Government Accountability Office. Border Patrol could consider the
number of apprehensions or contraband seizures per the number of vehicles
sent to secondary inspection as a measure of effectiveness. There are likely other
Ω Here, as in the Río Bravo region along the Texas-Mexico border, contraband
helped stitch borderland populations together across the international boundary.
But Métis traders who ventured onto the reservation to do business with the ...
Author: Benjamin Johnson
Publisher: Duke University Press
Despite a shared interest in using borders to explore the paradoxes of state-making and national histories, historians of the U.S.-Canada border region and those focused on the U.S.-Mexico borderlands have generally worked in isolation from one another. A timely and important addition to borderlands history, Bridging National Borders in North America initiates a conversation between scholars of the continent’s northern and southern borderlands. The historians in this collection examine borderlands events and phenomena from the mid-nineteenth century through the mid-twentieth. Some consider the U.S.-Canada border, others concentrate on the U.S.-Mexico border, and still others take both regions into account. The contributors engage topics such as how mixed-race groups living on the peripheries of national societies dealt with the creation of borders in the nineteenth century, how medical inspections and public-health knowledge came to be used to differentiate among bodies, and how practices designed to channel livestock and prevent cattle smuggling became the model for regulating the movement of narcotics and undocumented people. They explore the ways that U.S. immigration authorities mediated between the desires for unimpeded boundary-crossings for day laborers, tourists, casual visitors, and businessmen, and the restrictions imposed by measures such as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the 1924 Immigration Act. Turning to the realm of culture, they analyze the history of tourist travel to Mexico from the United States and depictions of the borderlands in early-twentieth-century Hollywood movies. The concluding essay suggests that historians have obscured non-national forms of territoriality and community that preceded the creation of national borders and sometimes persisted afterwards. This collection signals new directions for continental dialogue about issues such as state-building, national expansion, territoriality, and migration. Contributors: Dominique Brégent-Heald, Catherine Cocks, Andrea Geiger, Miguel Ángel González Quiroga, Andrew R. Graybill, Michel Hogue, Benjamin H. Johnson, S. Deborah Kang, Carolyn Podruchny, Bethel Saler, Jennifer Seltz, Rachel St. John, Lissa Wadewitz Published in cooperation with the William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies, Southern Methodist University.
... women, and children from all walks of life worked in this parallel economic
universe: nobles and clergy wheeled and dealed behind the scenes, merchants
provisioned traffickers beyond the border, peasants funneled contraband across
Author: Michael Kwass
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Category: Business & Economics
Louis Mandrin led a gang of bandits who brazenly smuggled contraband into eighteenth-century France. Michael Kwass brings new life to the legend of this Gallic Robin Hood, exposing the dark side of early modern globalization. Decades later, the memory of Mandrin inspired ordinary subjects and Enlightened philosophers alike to challenge royal power.
These areas were located in four states on the northern border and two states on
the southern border . ... United States from Canada carrying a duffel bag to
simulate the cross - border movement of radioactive materials or other contraband .
Every day for thirty years a man drove a wheelbarrow full of sand over the
Tijuana border crossing. The customs inspector dug through the sand each
morning but could not discover any contraband. He remained, of course,
convinced that he ...
Author: Daniel Boyarin
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
The historical separation between Judaism and Christianity is often figured as a clearly defined break of a single entity into two separate religions. Following this model, there would have been one religion known as Judaism before the birth of Christ, which then took on a hybrid identity. Even before its subsequent division, certain beliefs and practices of this composite would have been identifiable as Christian or Jewish.In Border Lines, however, Daniel Boyarin makes a striking case for a very different way of thinking about the historical development that is the partition of Judaeo-Christianity. There were no characteristics or features that could be described as uniquely Jewish or Christian in late antiquity, Boyarin argues. Rather, Jesus-following Jews and Jews who did not follow Jesus lived on a cultural map in which beliefs, such as that in a second divine being, and practices, such as keeping kosher or maintaining the Sabbath, were widely and variably distributed. The ultimate distinctions between Judaism and Christianity were imposed from above by "border-makers," heresiologists anxious to construct a discrete identity for Christianity. By defining some beliefs and practices as Christian and others as Jewish or heretical, they moved ideas, behaviors, and people to one side or another of an artificial border—and, Boyarin significantly contends, invented the very notion of religion.
Along with contraband , official corruption is the second unique keystone which
structures the edifice of the border underworld . Corruption plays some role in
most crimes , but official corruption is essential in organized criminal activities
Some of these illegal aliens,1 on more than one occasion, have evaded
detection at the border ports of entry2 by hiding themselves, drugs, or other contraband in vehicles. Others trekked through the Arizona desert, waded across
the Rio ...
Author: Richard M. Stana
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
The U.S. Border Patrol operates checkpoints on U.S. roads, mainly in the southwest border states where most illegal entries occur. As part of a three-tiered strategy to maximize detection and apprehension of illegal aliens, Border Patrol agents at checkpoints screen vehicles for illegal aliens and contraband. This report assesses:(1) checkpoint performance and factors affecting performance; (2) checkpoint performance measures; (3) community impacts considered in checkpoint placement and design; and (4) the impact of checkpoint operations on nearby communities. Research included a review of Border Patrol data and guidance, and visits to checkpoints and communities in five Border Patrol sectors across four southwest border states. Illus.
This dissertation project describes the developing political and cultural economy of the port of Matamoros, especially focusing on the city's insertion into vibrant trade networks that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Author: Melisa Catarina Galvan
This dissertation project describes the developing political and cultural economy of the port of Matamoros, especially focusing on the city's insertion into vibrant trade networks that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana. I approach my study from two different angles: first, through a reconstruction of the economic activity of the city and its trading partners, and second, by surveying the dynamics of political interactions between local players. The city's port was the conduit for a vibrant contraband trade during this period, and my dissertation uses various innovative methods (especially the reconstruction of trade networks) and obscure sources to quantify the degree to which this illicit commerce contributed to the growth of Matamoros and the region more broadly. My work also analyzes the port's legal trading connections to New Orleans and other North American entrepôts as well as to the interior of the Mexican North, west to Monterrey, and north across the Rio Grande to Texas. Finally, I untangle the complex ways that Matamoros' merchants and political elite defended international maritime trade--the lifeblood of the economy--by carefully maneuvering among a multiplicity of state, national, and international actors. Using the tools of political economy, my dissertation provides a complex understanding of the relationship between politics and trade in Mexican history, blurring the one-way lines of causation found in much of the current scholarship. Although the primary methods I use are those of political economy, I see cultural exchanges and influences as integral to the developing trade networks. My findings complicate Mexican economic and political historiographies as well as our current understanding of trans--Caribbean trading systems.
However, much of the army's contraband interdiction work has been against
small-scale transfers of goods across the border. As part of this work, army
personnel have confiscated small amounts of food or other goods transported
Author: Maiah Jaskoski
Publisher: JHU Press
Category: Political Science
Military Politics and Democracy in the Andes challenges conventional theories regarding military behavior in post-transition democracies. Through a deeply researched comparative analysis of the Ecuadorian and Peruvian armies, Maiah Jaskoski argues that militaries are concerned more with the predictability of their missions than with sovereignty objectives set by democratically elected leaders. Jaskoski gathers data from interviews with public officials, private sector representatives, journalists, and more than 160 Peruvian and Ecuadorian officers from all branches of the military. The results are surprising. Ecuador’s army, for example, fearing the uncertainty of border defense against insurgent encroachment in the north, neglected this duty, thereby sacrificing the state’s security goals, acting against government orders, and challenging democratic consolidation. Instead of defending the border, the army has opted to carry out policing functions within Ecuador, such as combating the drug trade. Additionally, by ignoring its duty to defend sovereignty, the army is available to contract out its policing services to paying, private companies that, relative to the public, benefit disproportionately from army security. Jaskoski also looks briefly at this theory's implications for military responsiveness to government orders in democratic Bolivia, Colombia, and Venezuela, and in newly formed democracies more broadly.
Similarly, the gambian port of Banjul was a point through which contraband was
traded across the Senegambian subregion. The bustling gambian town of
Brikama, which is slightly set back from the southern border with Senegal,
became (and ...
Author: Thomas M. Wilson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Social Science
A Companion to Border Studies introduces an exciting and expanding field of interdisciplinary research, through the writing of an international array of scholars, from diverse perspectives that include anthropology, development studies, geography, history, political science and sociology. Explores how nations and cultural identities are being transformed by their dynamic, shifting borders where mobility is sometimes facilitated, other times impeded or prevented Offers an array of international views which together form an authoritative guide for students, instructors and researchers Reflects recent significant growth in the importance of understanding the distinctive characteristics of borders and frontiers, including cross-border cooperation, security and controls, migration and population displacements, hybridity, and transnationalism
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo obligated the United States to prevent Indian
forays into Mexico, to suppress cross-border contraband trade, and to reclaim
and repatriate Mexican captives held by Indians. But policing the long border
Author: Pekka Hamalainen
Publisher: Yale University Press
A groundbreaking history of the rise and decline of the vast and imposing Native American empire. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, a Native American empire rose to dominate the fiercely contested lands of the American Southwest, the southern Great Plains, and northern Mexico. This powerful empire, built by the Comanche Indians, eclipsed its various European rivals in military prowess, political prestige, economic power, commercial reach, and cultural influence. Yet, until now, the Comanche empire has gone unrecognized in American history. This compelling and original book uncovers the lost story of the Comanches. It is a story that challenges the idea of indigenous peoples as victims of European expansion and offers a new model for the history of colonial expansion, colonial frontiers, and Native-European relations in North America and elsewhere. Pekka Hämäläinen shows in vivid detail how the Comanches built their unique empire and resisted European colonization, and why they fell to defeat in 1875. With extensive knowledge and deep insight, the author brings into clear relief the Comanches’ remarkable impact on the trajectory of history. 2009 Winner of the Bancroft Prize in American History “Cutting-edge revisionist western history…. Immensely informative, particularly about activities in the eighteenth century.”—Larry McMurtry, The New York Review of Books “Exhilarating…a pleasure to read…. It is a nuanced account of the complex social, cultural, and biological interactions that the acquisition of the horse unleashed in North America, and a brilliant analysis of a Comanche social formation that dominated the Southern Plains.”—Richard White, author of The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815
Thus, the Allies threatened to withhold contraband merchandise unless the border states guaranteed genuine domestic consumption. “Explanatory”
memoranda to each of the border neutral states followed within a few weeks.
These notes ...
Author: M.M. Farrar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Social Science
The historical literature on the first world war has devoted relatively little attention to the Allied blockade of the Central Powers. The few published studies have concentrated either on the blockade's naval aspects or exclusively on the British contribution. Little effort has been made heretofore to distinguish the French role. This study focuses on the French contribution to the diplomatic, as contrasted with the maritime, blockade of the Central Powers. It discusses primarily French relations with the so-called European border neutral states : principally Switzerland, but also the Netherlands and the three Scandinavian countries. Only in the diplomatic aspects of the Allied blockade program did the French play a distinctive role. Their token contribution to maritime blockade activity remained subordinate to the British. An examination of Franco-neutral rela tions involves not only a study of those diplomatic contacts per se but also a comparison of French and British tactics as a reflection of differing economic warfare concepts. This study also investigates the development of a French blockade organization to meet the demands of this new weapon, the diplomatic blockade.
The profits of the contraband trade helped perpetuate the regional conflicts.2 This
chapter examines smuggling in Abkhazia ... Both of these secessionist territories border Russia: Abkhazia's border with Russia is 197 km long (with 200 km of ...
Author: Louise Shelley
Category: Political Science
Georgia is one of the most corrupt and crime-ridden nations of the former Soviet Union. In the Soviet period, Georgians played a major role in organized crime groups and the shadow economy operating throughout the Soviet Union, and in the post-Soviet period, Georgia continues to be important source of international crime and corruption. Important changes have been made since the Rose Revolution in Georgia to address the organized crime and pervasive corruption. This book, based on extensive original research, surveys the most enduring aspects of organized crime and corruption in Georgia and the most important reforms since the Rose Revolution. Endemic crime and corruption had a devastating effect on government and everyday life in Georgia, spurring widespread popular discontent that culminated with the Rose Revolution in 2003. Some of the hopes of the Rose Revolution have been realized, though major challenges lie ahead as Georgia confronts deep-seated crime and corruption issues that will remain central to political, economic, and social life in the years to come.
Then, as now, vehicles employed in the transport of contraband could be seized.
(Scott Wheeler collection.) CAPTURED CAR, FRANKLIN COUNTY, 1920S.
Prohibition (1920–1933) was a colorful period on the border. Highspeed car
Author: Matthew Farfan
Publisher: Arcadia Publishing
The Vermont-Quebec Border: Life on the Line is a visual record of life in the villages, towns, and countryside in this unique and special part of the world. In recent years, issues relating to the border have been thrust to the forefront as never before. This is due not only to growing security concerns but also to an increasing scrutiny in the media of border issues and of how heightened security is impacting life in communities all along the border. The border has played an important role in the history and everyday lives of the people living along its length, both in Vermont and Quebec, and it will undoubtedly continue to shape these communities in the years to come.
Author: William W. JohnstonePublish On: 2005-09-01
... the lucrative cross-border contraband trade, whose latest and most up-to-date
commodity was trafficking in stolen Iraqi scientists. The plan was for the column to
advance to the western end of the pass, halting just this side of the Iraqi border.
Author: William W. Johnstone
Publisher: Pinnacle Books
In his electrifying novel of combat, The Last of the Dog Team, William W. Johnstone introduced a hero for our times--Terry Kovack. In war, the enemy feared him. In peace, men admired him and women wanted him. . . Following in the footsteps of his grandfather, the legendary Terry Kovack, Steve Ireland is a trained killer. With his Special Forces team, he does his job quickly, quietly, with absolute certainty. And in the war against terror, his services are needed more than ever. Now, he finds himself hunting a different kind of prey. For when he is called upon to stalk and destroy a Middle Eastern terrorist cabal, he slowly realizes that he is following in another assassin's wake. Someone is staying one step ahead of Ireland and his team, taking out the enemy in his own way with lethal precision, and disappearing into the dark. But what Ireland doesn't know is that his search for the truth will lead him to confront the ghosts of the past. A band of fighting men who were never supposed to exist; a team of soldiers who will go anywhere and fight anyone for their country; and a legacy that runs in Steve's own blood. . . The Return Of The Dog Team
The Proceedings of "Borders and Frontiers: a Working Conference on Teaching
about International Borders", Held July 25, ... Along with contraband , official
corruption is the second unique Keystone which structures the edifice of the border ...
Contraband activity is a typical feature of frontier zones in developing countries
as elsewhere but particularly where the frontier itself is relatively unstable. Where borders are closed, contraband networks provide the only means of organizing ...
Author: James McDougall
Publisher: Indiana University Press
Category: Social Science
The Sahara has long been portrayed as a barrier that divides the Mediterranean world from Africa proper and isolates the countries of the Maghrib from their southern and eastern neighbors. Rather than viewing the desert as an isolating barrier, this volume takes up historian Fernand Braudel’s description of the Sahara as "the second face of the Mediterranean." The essays recast the history of the region with the Sahara at its center, uncovering a story of densely interdependent networks that span the desert’s vast expanse. They explore the relationship between the desert’s "islands" and "shores" and the connections and commonalities that unite the region. Contributors draw on extensive ethnographic and historical research to address topics such as trade and migration; local notions of place, territoriality, and movement; Saharan cities; and the links among ecological, regional, and world-historical approaches to understanding the Sahara.