Bioinorganic Chemistry

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Introduces students to the basics of bioinorganic chemistry This book provides the fundamentals for inorganic chemistry and biochemistry relevant to understanding bioinorganic topics.

Author: Rosette M. Roat-Malone

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119535218

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 852

Introduces students to the basics of bioinorganic chemistry This book provides the fundamentals for inorganic chemistry and biochemistry relevant to understanding bioinorganic topics. It provides essential background material, followed by detailed information on selected topics, to give readers the background, tools, and skills they need to research and study bioinorganic topics of interest to them. To reflect current practices and needs, instrumental methods and techniques are referred to and mixed in throughout the book. Bioinorganic Chemistry: A Short Course, Third Edition begins with a chapter on Inorganic Chemistry and Biochemistry Essentials. It then continues with chapters on: Computer Hardware, Software, and Computational Chemistry Methods; Important Metal Centers in Proteins; Myoglobins, Hemoglobins, Superoxide Dismutases, Nitrogenases, Hydrogenases, Carbonic Anhydrases, and Nitrogen Cycle Enzymes. The book concludes with chapters on Nanobioinorganic Chemistry and Metals in Medicine. Readers are also offered end-of-section summaries, conclusions, and thought problems. Reduces size of the text from previous edition to match the first, keeping it appropriate for a one-semester course Offers primers and background materials to help students feel comfortable with research-level bioinorganic chemistry Emphasizes select and diverse topics using extensive references from current scientific literature, with more emphasis on molecular biology in the biochemistry section, leading to a discussion of CRISPR technology Adds new chapters on hydrogenases, carbonic anhydrases, and nitrogen cycle enzymes, along with a separate chapter on nanobioinorganic chemistry Features expanded coverage of computer hardware and software, metalloenzymes, and metals in medicines Supplemented with a companion website for students and instructors featuring Powerpoint and JPEG figures and tables, arranged by chapter Appropriate for one-semester bioinorganic chemistry courses, Bioinorganic Chemistry: A Short Course, Third Edition is ideal for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students. It is also a valuable reference for practitioners and researchers in need of a general introduction to the subject, as well as chemists requiring an accessible reference.
Categories: Science

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Bioinorganic Chemistry

The Coverage In This Book Is Organised In Terms Of The Syllabus Prescribed In Ugc Model Curriculum 2001 For Both Undergraduate And Postgraduate Students Of Chemistry And Biological Sciences.The Book Provides A Comprehensive And In-Depth ...

Author: K. Hussain Reddy

Publisher: New Age International

ISBN: 8122414370

Category: Biomineralization

Page: 368

View: 946

The Coverage In This Book Is Organised In Terms Of The Syllabus Prescribed In Ugc Model Curriculum 2001 For Both Undergraduate And Postgraduate Students Of Chemistry And Biological Sciences.The Book Provides A Comprehensive And In-Depth Treatment Of The Subject. In Addition To Explaining The Basic Principles And Applications In Bioinorganic Chemistry, The Book Also Describes: * Photosynthesis. * Metal Complexes And Their Interaction With Nucleic Acids. * Effect Of Inorganic Pollutants On Biological Systems.The Book Would Serve As An Ideal Text For Students Of Chemistry And Biological Sciences. Researchers In Related Areas Would Find It An Extremely Useful Reference Source.
Categories: Biomineralization

Bioinorganic Chemistry Inorganic Elements in the Chemistry of Life

Bioinorganic Chemistry    Inorganic Elements in the Chemistry of Life

The second edition of this classic text has been fully revised and updated to include new structure information, emerging developments in the field, and an increased focus on medical applications of inorganic compounds.

Author: Wolfgang Kaim

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118659267

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 983

The field of Bioinorganic Chemistry has grown significantly inrecent years; now one of the major sub-disciplines of InorganicChemistry, it has also pervaded other areas of the life sciencesdue to its highly interdisciplinary nature. Bioinorganic Chemistry: Inorganic Elements in the Chemistryof Life, Second Edition provides a detailed introduction to therole of inorganic elements in biology, taking a systematicelement-by-element approach to the topic. The second edition ofthis classic text has been fully revised and updated to include newstructure information, emerging developments in the field, and anincreased focus on medical applications of inorganic compounds. Newtopics have been added including materials aspects of bioinorganicchemistry, elemental cycles, bioorganometallic chemistry, medicalimaging and therapeutic advances. Topics covered include: Metals at the center of photosynthesis Uptake, transport, and storage of essential elements Catalysis through hemoproteins Biological functions of molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium andchromium Function and transport of alkaline and alkaline earth metalcations Biomineralization Biological functions of the non-metallic inorganicelements Bioinorganic chemistry of toxic metals Biochemical behavior of radionuclides and medical imaging usinginorganic compounds Chemotherapy involving non-essential elements This full color text provides a concise and comprehensive review ofbioinorganic chemistry for advanced students of chemistry,biochemistry, biology, medicine and environmental science.
Categories: Science

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Bioinorganic Chemistry

This book presents a unique introduction into the field of bioinorganic chemistry through practical laboratory experiments.

Author: Nils Metzler-Nolte

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110209549

Category: Science

Page: 138

View: 355

This book presents a unique introduction into the field of bioinorganic chemistry through practical laboratory experiments. Topics include many aspects of modern bioinorganic chemistry such as model systems for metalloenzymes, biosensors, metal bioconjugates and metal-based drugs. Each chapter contains a brief introduction, followed by detailed experimental procedures, completed with all necessary background information for the student as well as their instructors. A valuable supplement to standard textbooks of inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry Essential for all instructors teaching laboratory courses in general and inorganic chemistry
Categories: Science

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Bioinorganic Chemistry

This comprehensive series of volumes on inorganic chemistry provides inorganic chemists with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline.

Author: Stephen J. Lippard

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470166963

Category: Science

Page: 535

View: 576

This comprehensive series of volumes on inorganic chemistry provides inorganic chemists with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Every volume reports recent progress with a significant, up-to-date selection of papers by internationally recognized researchers, complemented by detailed discussions and complete documentation. Each volume features a complete subject index and the series includes a cumulative index as well.
Categories: Science

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Bioinorganic Chemistry

The book provides students and researchers with a general overview of the many very fundamental tasks performed by inorganic elements in living organisms as well as the related methods and theories with particular emphasis on enzymatic ...

Author: Daniel Rabinovich

Publisher: de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110492040

Category: Science

Page: 210

View: 167

Bioinorganic Chemistry bings together Biochemistry and Inorganic Chemistry, but also lies at the interface with Chemistry, Biology, and Physics. Advanced chemical and biochemical aspects and methods are thoroughly discussed in Bioinorganic Chemistry. The book provides students and researchers with a general overview of the many very fundamental tasks performed by inorganic elements in living organisms as well as the related methods and theories with particular emphasis on enzymatic conversions and electron transfer. This goes along with the elucidation of model systems and technical applications of both, concepts learned from nature as well as biological systems. Readers gain an understanding of the concepts of coordination chemistry in biological environments, and to utilize this knowledge to analyze the influence of such an environment on the reactivity of a metal centre. This expertise should serve as a tool for development of e.g. metalloenzyme applications, material synthesis and pharmaceutical development.
Categories: Science

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Bioinorganic chemistry is primarily concerned with the role of metal atoms in biology and is a very active research field.

Author: D.P. Kessissoglou

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401102551

Category: Science

Page: 415

View: 412

Bioinorganic chemistry is primarily concerned with the role of metal atoms in biology and is a very active research field. However, even though such important structures of metalloenzymes are known, as the MoFeCo of nitrogenase, Cu or Mn superoxide dismutase and plastocyanin, the synthetic routes to the modelling of such centers remains a matter of acute scientific interest. Other metalloenzymes, such as the Mn center of the oxygen evolving complex of PSII, are still the focus of in-depth examination, both spectroscopic and structural. Another area of concern is the interaction between drugs and metals and metal ion antagonism. Understanding the chemistry of metal ions in biological systems will bring benefits in terms of understanding such problems as biomineralization and the production of advanced materials by micro-organisms. The 29 contributions to Bioinorganic Chemistry: An Inorganic Perspective of Life give an excellent summary of the state of the art in this field, covering areas from the NMR of paramagnetic molecules to the use of lanthanide porphyrins in artificial batteries.
Categories: Science

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Written by major contributors to the field, Bioinorganic Chemistry provides students with an introduction and overview of the subject and gives them the background required to read and follow the current research literature.

Author: Ivano Bertini

Publisher: Univ Science Books

ISBN: UOM:39015032835889

Category: Medical

Page: 611

View: 552

Written by major contributors to the field, Bioinorganic Chemistry provides students with an introduction and overview of the subject and gives them the background required to read and follow the current research literature.
Categories: Medical

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Written by a preeminent teacher and scientist in the field, Bioinorganic Chemistry provides specialists, students, and general readers with an understanding of the basic chemistry of interactions of inorganic substances with biological ...

Author: Ei-ichiro Ochiai

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0120887568

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 233

The study of the chemistry of living processes – biochemistry – has traditionally centered on the behavior of organic chemical compounds in water, the principle solvent in all cells. Organic compounds and water account for 99 % of the matter in living systems. Some 20 inorganic elements are also essential for life, and they are found in similar amounts in most living systems. Bioinorganic Chemistry is essentially the border between inorganic chemistry and biology. The overall purpose of bioinorganic research is to study the relationship between inorganic metal ions such as copper and iron, and biologically specific macromolecules, experimentally as well as theoretically. The importance of inorganic chemistry in biology, especially metal ion coordination, has gained considerable attention during the last decade. The discoveries of the roles of metal ions and metalloproteins in health and disease through genetic and biochemical studies have drawn the attention of both inorganic chemists and molecular and cell biologists. Bioinorganic courses deal with the specific properties of metal ions as expressed in the functioning of biochemical systems, with the objective to deepen student insight into the chemical behaviour of metal ions in biological systems. Ochiai is generally considered the father of the discipline. When first published in 1977, the very successful first edition provided a clear and concise introduction to the brand new field of bioinorganic chemistry. • Provides the streamlined coverage appropriate for one-semester courses or independent study, with all of the necessary but none of the excessive information • Prepares readers to move to the next level of study (whether they continue on in the field or transition to medicine/industry) • Presents concepts through extensive four-color visuals, appealing to a range of learning styles • Promotes critical thinking through open-ended questions throughout the narrative and at the end of each chapter
Categories: Science

The Bioinorganic Chemistry of Chromium

The Bioinorganic Chemistry of Chromium

Topics covered include: The Bioinorganic Chemistry of Chromium is an important contribution to the bioinorganic and trace element biochemical fields which will find a place on the bookshelves of bioinorganic chemists, biochemists, inorganic ...

Author: John Vincent

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118458853

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 287

Chromium exists in nature as complexes of two stable oxidation states – trivalent chromium(III) and hexavalent chromium(VI). Although trivalent chromium is required in trace amounts for sugar and lipid metabolism in humans and its deficiency may cause a disease called chromium deficiency; hexavalent chromium is toxic and carcinogenic. As chromium compounds were used in dyes and paints and the tanning of leather, these compounds are often found in soil and groundwater at abandoned industrial sites, now needing environmental cleanup and remediation. The Bioinorganic Chemistry of Chromium: From Biochemistry to Environmental Toxicology takes a critical look at what the biochemical data indicate about chromium's role in the body and the biological mechanisms of its toxicology. Topics covered include: What do we know about the biochemical roles and mechanisms of chromium? Is chromium an essential element in the mammalian diet? Is chromium(III) effective as a nutraceutical, a therapeutic agent, and as a supplement in animal feed? What is the biochemistry behind the toxicology of chromium(III) and chromium(VI):the mechanisms of metabolism, genetic and epigenetic effects, and disruption of cell signalling? What are the current chromium(VI) policies and positions from regulatory agencies? The Bioinorganic Chemistry of Chromium: From Biochemistry to Environmental Toxicology is an important contribution to the bioinorganic and trace element biochemical fields which will find a place on the bookshelves of bioinorganic chemists, biochemists, inorganic chemists, toxicologists, nutritionists and regulatory affairs professionals.
Categories: Science

Perspectives on Bioinorganic Chemistry

Perspectives on Bioinorganic Chemistry

The aim of this series is to provide authoritative reviews in the rapidly expanding area of bioinorganic chemistry. The series will present "state of the art" reviews covering the whole field of bioinorganic chemistry.

Author: R.W. Hay

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080552080

Category: Science

Page: 245

View: 887

The aim of this series is to provide authoritative reviews in the rapidly expanding area of bioinorganic chemistry. The series will present "state of the art" reviews covering the whole field of bioinorganic chemistry. The present volume is the fourth in the series and covers the topics: lithium in biology, the structure and function of ceroplasmin, rhenium complexes in nuclear medicine, the anti-HIV activity of macrocyclic polyamines and their metal complexes for dinuclear phosphoesterase enzymes.
Categories: Science

Mechanistic Bioinorganic Chemistry

Mechanistic Bioinorganic Chemistry

Provides an understanding of bioinorganic reactions from a mechanistic point of view.

Author: American Chemical Society. Meeting

Publisher: Amer Chemical Society

ISBN: UVA:X002240040

Category: Science

Page: 505

View: 931

Provides an understanding of bioinorganic reactions from a mechanistic point of view. Illustrates how spectroscopy can be used to establish mechanisms and how model compounds provide mechanistic insight for enzymes. Demonstrates how to apply numerous physical methods to understanding mechanisms of redox catalysis by metal centers in enzymes. Highlights the interrelationships between the roles of metal ions in electron transfer, redox catalysis, structural roles, and hydrolytic chemistry. Provides mechanistic insights into water oxidation, nitrogen fixation, nucleic acid oxidation and hydrolysis, oxygen binding, catalase reactions, and electron transfer.
Categories: Science

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Bioinorganic Chemistry provides a broad overview of this dynamic field, reviewing the key chemical elements that have important biological function, and exploring how the chemistry of these elements is central to the function of biological ...

Author: Dieter Rehder

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0199655197

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 353

Bioinorganic Chemistry provides a broad overview of this dynamic field, reviewing the key chemical elements that have important biological function, and exploring how the chemistry of these elements is central to the function of biological systems.
Categories: Science

Biological Inorganic Chemistry

Biological Inorganic Chemistry

Part A.: Overviews of biological inorganic chemistry : 1.

Author: Gray Bertini

Publisher: University Science Books

ISBN: 1891389432

Category: Science

Page: 739

View: 455

Part A.: Overviews of biological inorganic chemistry : 1. Bioinorganic chemistry and the biogeochemical cycles -- 2. Metal ions and proteins: binding, stability, and folding -- 3. Special cofactors and metal clusters -- 4. Transport and storage of metal ions in biology -- 5. Biominerals and biomineralization -- 6. Metals in medicine. -- Part B.: Metal ion containing biological systems : 1. Metal ion transport and storage -- 2. Hydrolytic chemistry -- 3. Electron transfer, respiration, and photosynthesis -- 4. Oxygen metabolism -- 5. Hydrogen, carbon, and sulfur metabolism -- 6. Metalloenzymes with radical intermediates -- 7. Metal ion receptors and signaling. -- Cell biology, biochemistry, and evolution: Tutorial I. -- Fundamentals of coordination chemistry: Tutorial II.
Categories: Science

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Bioinorganic Chemistry

This book aims to shed light on some of the unexplored aspects of bioinorganic chemistry and the recent researches in this field. It elucidates new techniques and their applications in a multidisciplinary manner.

Author: James Denton

Publisher:

ISBN: 1682868486

Category: Science

Page: 223

View: 198

Bioinorganic chemistry is the science that studies the role of metals in biology. This field involves the study of the behavior of metalloproteins and artificially introduced metals in medicine and toxicology. Some of the focus areas in bioinorganic chemistry are the study of transport and storage of metal ions, enzymology, bioorganometallic chemistry, toxicity, oxygen transport and activation proteins, metals in medicine, etc. Many reactions involve water and metal ions that are usually at the catalytic centers for these enzymes. Aerobic life has an extensive use of metals like copper, iron and manganese. Heme is used in the form of hemoglobin by red blood cells for the transport of oxygen. Some metalloproteins protect biological systems from the potentially harmful effects of reactive oxygen-containing molecules. This book aims to shed light on some of the unexplored aspects of bioinorganic chemistry and the recent researches in this field. It elucidates new techniques and their applications in a multidisciplinary manner. Researchers and students in this field will be assisted by this book.
Categories: Science

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Bioinorganic Chemistry

This book summarizes latest results of interdisciplinary research on several universities.

Author: Alfred X. Trautwein

Publisher: Wiley-VCH

ISBN: STANFORD:36105021461749

Category: Science

Page: 767

View: 610

Whenever nature has a difficult task to perform it can be expected that a metal ion or a cluster of such ions is employed. Metal ions are indispensable for the integrity of biological structures and the catalysis of biological reactions. Knowledge about their mode of action, their uptake in the cell, their handling and their storage is important for the development of new pharmaceuticals. This book summarizes latest results of interdisciplinary research on several universities.
Categories: Science

Applications of Physical Methods to Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry

Applications of Physical Methods to Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry

This volume is also available as part of Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry, 5 Volume Set.

Author: Robert A. Scott

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118625286

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 977

Modern spectroscopic and instrumental techniques are essential tothe practice of inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry. This firstvolume in the new Wiley Encyclopedia of Inorganic ChemistryMethods and Applications Series provides a consistent andcomprehensive description of the practical applicability of a largenumber of techniques to modern problems in inorganic andbioinorganic chemistry. The outcome is a text that providesinvaluable guidance and advice for inorganic and bioinorganicchemists to select appropriate techniques, whilst acting as asource to the understanding of these methods. This volume is also available as part of Encyclopedia ofInorganic Chemistry, 5 Volume Set. This set combines all volumes published as EIC Books from 2007to 2010, representing areas of key developments in the field ofinorganic chemistry published in the Encyclopedia of InorganicChemistry. ahref="http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1119994284.html"Findout more/a.
Categories: Science

Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry

Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry

An extraordinarily readable writing style combines with chapter-opening principles, study problems, and beautifully rendered two-color illustrations to make this book an ideal choice for instructors, students, and researchers in the ...

Author: Stephen J. Lippard

Publisher: University Science Books

ISBN: 0935702725

Category: Science

Page: 411

View: 938

As one of the most dynamic fields in contemporary science, bioinorganic chemistry lies at a natural juncture between chemistry, biology, and medicine. This rapidly expanding field probes fascinating questions about the uses of metal ions in nature. Respiration, metabolism, photosynthesis, gene regulation, and nerve impulse transmission are a few of the many natural processes that require metal ions, and new systems are continually being discovered. The use of unnatural metals - which have been introduced into human biology as diagnostic probes and drugs - is another active area of tremendous medical significance. This introductory text, written by two pioneering researchers, is destined to become a landmark in the field of bioinorganic chemistry through its organized unification of key topics. Accessible to undergraduates, the book provides necessary background information on coordination chemistry, biochemistry, and physical methods before delving into topics that are central to the field: What metals are chosen and how are they taken up by cells? How are the concentrations of metals controlled and utilized in cells? How do metals bind to and fold biomolecules? What principles govern electron transfer and substrate binding and activation reactions? How do proteins fine-tune the properties of metals for specific functions? For each topic discussed, fundamentals are identified and then clarified through selected examples. An extraordinarily readable writing style combines with chapter-opening principles, study problems, and beautifully rendered two-color illustrations to make this book an ideal choice for instructors, students, and researchers in the chemical, biological, and medicalcommunities.
Categories: Science

Current Research Topics in Bioinorganic Chemistry

Current Research Topics in Bioinorganic Chemistry

This comprehensive series of volumes on inorganic chemistry provides inorganic chemists with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline.

Author: Stephen J. Lippard

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470166697

Category: Science

Page: 454

View: 174

This comprehensive series of volumes on inorganic chemistry provides inorganic chemists with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Every volume reports recent progress with a significant, up-to-date selection of papers by internationally recognized researchers, complemented by detailed discussions and complete documentation. Each volume features a complete subject index and the series includes a cumulative index as well.
Categories: Science

Element Speciation in Bioinorganic Chemistry

Element Speciation in Bioinorganic Chemistry

The book consists of contributions by a truly international group of leading authorities on element speciation in bioinorganic chemistry.

Author: Sergio Caroli

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471576417

Category: Science

Page: 474

View: 582

Element speciation determines the different forms a chemicalelement can take within a given compound, enabling chemists topredict possible ramifications for the environment and humanhealth. This comprehensive book focuses on the analytical aspectsand instrumentation of speciation, while covering the gamut ofmetal speciation forms with adverse effects on biological materialsand the environment at large. The book consists of contributions by a truly international groupof leading authorities on element speciation in bioinorganicchemistry. The editor--a contributor here himself--traces thedevelopments in the field, discussing the advances made over thepast decade in various methodologies and the significance of theincreased capacity to detect extremely small concentrations oftrace elements in various media. Several chapters are dedicated to the various methods andapplications of speciation, exploring specific analytical methods,such as direct, chromatographic and nonchromatographic methods, aswell as nuclear-based and voltammetric methods. Others coverspeciation in various natural water and marine environments and itsmanifestation in biological materials, human serum, or foodstuff.In addition, the book examines speciation theory and legal aspectsas well as questions of quality and sources of errors--issues thatunderscore the perennial need to develop new methods for obtainingstill more accurate data. Extremely broad in scope and rich in detail, this volume providesthe key to improving the state of the art in the field, and is sureto stimulate further research. It stands as a one-of-a-kindreference for analytical and inorganic chemists, as well asbiochemists, in a wide range of disciplines, including toxicology,environmental science, nutrition research, clinical chemistry, andpharmacology. A complete reference for the analytical and instrumental aspects ofspeciation This unique volume provides both a comprehensive reference and apractical guide to the complete range of issues arising fromelement speciation. It concentrates on analytical methods andinstrumentation in bioinorganic chemistry--especially as applied towater-related projects--while addressing the larger environmentaland human-health concerns of our times. Complete with over 100 illustrations, this collaborative effort byan international group of experts describes * Methods for the detection and analysis of species elements,including direct methods, atomic spectrometry, nuclear activationanalysis and radio tracer, high-performance chromatography, orvoltammetric procedures * Specific effects of various species elements, including heavymetals, arsenic, and many other trace elements * Biological materials showing concentrations of trace elements,including human serum, milk, and marine organisms * Various environments affected by element speciation, such asnatural waters, sea waters, estuarine, and coastal environments * How to avoid common pitfalls and obtain sound and accuratedata For anyone involved in environmental and earth sciences, as well asthe related areas of public health, pharmacology, toxicology,nutritional research, or environmental regulations, this importantwork offers the most systematic survey of element speciation todate. It also provides historical perspective, a preview ofexpected developments, and a multitude of new ideas for furtherresearch. The author of approximately 240 published papers and three previousbooks, Dr. Caroli is an active member of numerous national andinternational committees and organizations concerned with chemicalsin the environment. He also sits on the editorial or advisoryboards of several scientific journals, including the Journal ofAnalytical Atomic Spectroscopy, Environmental Science and PollutionResearch International, and Microchemical Journal.
Categories: Science