With strong emphasis on microbial population biology and distilling cutting-edge research into basic principles, this book will complement other currently available volumes.
Author: Stephen T. Abedon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Bacteriophages, or phages, are viruses that infect bacteria and are believed to be the most abundant and genetically diverse organisms on Earth. As such, their ecology is vast both in quantitative and qualitative terms. Their abundance makes an understanding of phage ecology increasingly relevant to bacterial ecosystem ecology, bacterial genomics and bacterial pathology. Abedon provides the first text on phage ecology for almost 20 years. Written by leading experts, synthesizing the three key approaches to studying phage ecology, namely studying them in natural environments (in situ), experimentally in the lab, or theoretically using mathematical or computer models. With strong emphasis on microbial population biology and distilling cutting-edge research into basic principles, this book will complement other currently available volumes. It will therefore serve as an essential resource for graduate students and researchers, particularly those with an interest in phage ecology and evolutionary biology.
This book is the first to explore the distribution, fate, and ecology of phage in the environment and point up the important applications of this information.
Author: Sagar M. Goyal
This book is the first to explore the distribution, fate, and ecology of phage in the environment and point up the important applications of this information. The text begins with an historical overview, followed by a discussion of the current state of phage taxonomy. Next is covered the distribution patterns and fate of phage in diverse environments, e.g. soil, fresh water, marine water, and water and wastewater treatment plants. Factors that can influence the numbers and activity of phage populations, e.g. host and phage density, association of a phage with solids, presence of organic matter, temperature, pH, ultraviolet and visible light, concentration and types of ions present, and the metabolic activities of bacteria other than the phage host are examined. One chapter is devoted to the occurrence and implications of phage in various industries, e.g. dairy, wine, sausage, and antibiotic industries.
Of course, bacteriophage (or phage, for short) do not devour their hosts.
Bacteriophage, like all viruses, depend on host replication machinery to multiply,
a process explained in greater detail in Chapter 1. Bacteriophage ecology might
Author: Joshua S. Weitz
Publisher: Princeton University Press
When we think about viruses we tend to consider ones that afflict humans—such as those that cause influenza, HIV, and Ebola. Yet, vastly more viruses infect single-celled microbes. Diverse and abundant, microbes and the viruses that infect them are found in oceans, lakes, plants, soil, and animal-associated microbiomes. Taking a vital look at the "microscopic" mode of disease dynamics, Quantitative Viral Ecology establishes a theoretical foundation from which to model and predict the ecological and evolutionary dynamics that result from the interaction between viruses and their microbial hosts. Joshua Weitz addresses three major questions: What are viruses of microbes and what do they do to their hosts? How do interactions of a single virus-host pair affect the number and traits of hosts and virus populations? How do virus-host dynamics emerge in natural environments when interactions take place between many viruses and many hosts? Emphasizing how theory and models can provide answers, Weitz offers a cohesive framework for tackling new challenges in the study of viruses and microbes and how they are connected to ecological processes—from the laboratory to the Earth system. Quantitative Viral Ecology is an innovative exploration of the influence of viruses in our complex natural world.
Phage. Ecology. Filamentous bacteriophage have been recovered from diverse
environmental sources, including soil (Murugaiyan et al., 2011), coastal fresh
water (Xue et al., 2012), alpine lakes (Hofer and Sommaruga, 2001) and deep
Author: Jasna Rakonjac
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Filamentous phage (genus Inovirus) infect almost invariably Gram-negative bacteria. They are distinguished from all other bacteriophage not only by morphology, but also by the mode of their assembly, a secretion-like process that does not kill the host. “Classic” Escherichia colifilamentous phage Ff (f1, fd and M13) are used in display technology and bio/nano/technology, whereas filamentous phage in general have been put to use by their bacterial hosts for adaptation to environment, pathogenesis, biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer and modulating genome stability. Many filamentous phage have a “symbiotic” life style that is often manifested by inability to form plaques, preventing their identification by standard phage-hunting techniques; while the absence or very low sequence conservation between phage infecting different species often complicates their identification through bioinformatics. Nevertheless, the number of discovered filamentous phage is increasing rapidly, along with realization of their significance. “Temperate” filamentous phage whose genomes are integrated into the bacterial chromosome of pathogenic bacteria often modulate virulence of the host. The Vibrio cholerae phage CTXf genome encodes cholera toxin, whereas many filamentous prophage influence virulence without encoding virulence factors. The nature of their effect on the bacterial pathogenicity and overall physiology is the next frontier in understanding intricate relationship between the filamentous phage and their hosts. Phage display has been widely used as a combinatorial technology of choice for discovery of therapeutic antibodies and peptide leads that have been applied in the vaccine design, diagnostics and drug development or targeting over the past thirty years. Virion proteins of filamentous phage are integral membrane proteins prior to assembly; hence they are ideal for display of bacterial surface and secreted proteins. The use of this technology at the scale of microbial community has potential to identify host-interacting proteins of uncultivable or low-represented community members. Recent applications of Ff filamentous phage extend into protein evolution, synthetic biology and nanotechnology. In many applications, phage serves as a monodisperse long-aspect nano-scaffold of well-defined shape. Chemical or chenetic modifications of this scaffold are used to introduce the necessary functionalities, such as fluorescent labels, ligands that target specific proteins, or peptides that promote formation of inorganic or organic nanostructures. We anticipate that the future holds development of new strategies for particle assembly, site-specific multi-functional modifications and improvement of existing modification strategies. These improvements will render the production of filamentous-phage-templated materials safe and affordable, allowing their applications outside of the laboratory.
The same may be said of the second important area for cyanophage biology,
namely the interaction between phage infection and ... In: Abedon ST (ed) Bacteriophage ecology: population growth, evolution, and impact of bacterial
Author: Brian A. Whitton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Cyanobacteria have existed for 3.5 billion years, yet they are still the most important photosynthetic organisms on the planet for cycling carbon and nitrogen. The ecosystems where they have key roles range from the warmer oceans to many Antarctic sites. They also include dense nuisance growths in nutrient-rich lakes and nitrogen-fixers which aid the fertility of rice-fields and many soils, especially the biological soil crusts of arid regions. Molecular biology has in recent years provided major advances in our understanding of cyanobacterial ecology. Perhaps for more than any other group of organisms, it is possible to see how the ecology, physiology, biochemistry, ultrastructure and molecular biology interact. This all helps to deal with practical problems such as the control of nuisance blooms and the use of cyanobacterial inocula to manage semi-desert soils. Large-scale culture of several organisms, especially "Spirulina" (Arthrospira), for health food and specialist products is increasingly being expanded for a much wider range of uses. In view of their probable contribution to past oil deposits, much attention is currently focused on their potential as a source of biofuel. Please visit http://extras.springer.com/ to view Extra Materials belonging to this volume. This book complements the highly successful Ecology of Cyanobacteria and integrates the discoveries of the past twelve years with the older literature.
While S.T.A. dabbled in what eventually would be all things phage ecological,
P.H. followed a much more molecular, then ... of his career at the Ohio State
University, in 1995– founded what would become the Bacteriophage Ecology
Author: Paul Hyman
Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria; as such, they have many potential uses for promoting health and combating disease. This book covers the many facets of phage-bacterial-human interaction in three sections: the role and impact of phages on natural bacterial communities, the potential to develop phage-based therapeutics and other aspects in which phages can be used to combat disease, including bacterial detection, bacterial epidemiology, the tracing of fecal contamination of water and decontamination of foods.
ROBERT V . MILLER Methods for Enumeration and Characterization of
Bacteriophages from Environmental Samples The natural ecology of bacteria - bacteriophage interactions is not well known . For many years , microbiologists
Author: Robert S. Burlage
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
This is the bench and field scientist's guide to well-established, reliable techniques for use in microbiology and microbial ecology. It provides a good starting place for those who are beginning to investigate aspects of the microbial community, and a refresher for more experienced researchers. Chapters on bacteria with interesting metabolic traits are augmented with chapters on molecular techniques, lipis analysis, and appropriate sampling techniques. A special section includes valuable information on biofilm development, bioremediation, modeling of biological systems, and the study of phylogenetics. Unlike other texts, which present theory in microbial ecology, this one contains the applications that can be used throughout one's research.
The history of phage study is captured, in part, in the books published on the topic. This is a list of over 100 monograph on or related to phages.
Author: Books, LLC
Publisher: Books LLC, Wiki Series
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 45. Chapters: Hershey-Chase experiment, Lambda phage, Bacteriophage, List of viruses, Phage monographs, Phage therapy, Phage ecology, Molecular microbiology, Phage display, Enterobacteria phage T4, M13 bacteriophage, George Eliava Institute, Transduction, Marine bacteriophage, Pseudomonas phage 6, Restriction modification system, Lytic cycle, T4 rII system, Bacteriophage MS2, Lysogenic cycle, Podoviridae, 29 phage, Caudovirales, Multiplicity of infection, Siphoviridae, Prophage, Cystovirus, Enterobacteria phage T2, T7 phage, Phi X 174, Tectivirus, Myoviridae, Microviridae, P1 phage, Cyanophage, Mu phage, Plasmavirus, Epsilon 15, P22 phage, Temperateness, Viral plaque, Bacteriophage Q, P1-derived artificial chromosome, HK97, Endolysin, BPP-1-like viruses, Phieco32-like viruses, Bacteriophage T5, Inoviridae, Leviviridae, T4-like viruses, P008, Filamentous phage, Corynebacteriophage, Polyphage, Coliphage. Excerpt: This is a list of biological viruses, and types of viruses. Please add to this list as appropriate. Note that some of these terms may be synonyms for the same virus; if there is already an article on that virus under another name, please create redirects from the other name(s) as appropriate. Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Bacteriophage (phage) are viruses of bacteria and arguably are the most numerous "organisms" on Earth. The history of phage study is captured, in part, in the books published on the topic. This is a list of over 100 monograph on or related to phages. The following have not yet been sufficiently scrutinized to ascertain that they technically are books (e.g., are not theses), are generally available, and are sufficiently about phage to be included in the above list: The following have not yet been sufficiently scrutinized to ascertain that they technically are...
Author: Ganapathy SubramanianPublish On: 2014-12-03
Kunisaki, H. and Tanji, Y. (2010) Intercrossing of phage genomes in a phage
cocktail and stable coexistence with Escherichia ... Rabinovitch, A., Aviram, I.,
and Zaritsky, A. (2003) Bacterial debris—an ecological mechanism for
coexistence of ...
Author: Ganapathy Subramanian
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
With contributions from biotechnologists and bioengineers, this ready reference describes the state of the art in industrial biopharmaceutical production, with a strong focus on continuous processes. Recent advances in single-use technology as well as application guidelines for all types of biopharmaceutical products, from vaccines to antibodies, and from bacterial to insect to mammalian cells are covered. The efficiency, robustness, and quality control of continuous production processes for biopharmaceuticals are reviewed and compared to traditional batch processes for a range of different production systems.
Exploring. Phage. Ecology,. Genetics,. and. Impact. in. Food. Fermentations.
Jennifer Mahony, Barry Collins, Anneleen ... CONTENTS 5.1 Introduction 5.2
Food Fermentations and LAB 5.3 Phage Ecology and Diversity in Fermented
Author: Ravishankar Rai V
Publisher: CRC Press
In recent years, the potential health benefits of fermented and functional foods have made them increasingly popular among consumers. A complete overview of the physiology and functional aspects of microbes present in fermented foods and used as functional foods, Beneficial Microbes in Fermented and Functional Foods explores recent advances and pro
Linking genetic change to community evolution: Insights from studies of bacteria
and bacteriophage. Ecology Letters 3: 362– 377. This paper shows how
microorganisms in vials can evolve in the laboratory to partition resources and
Author: David A. Baum
Publisher: Princeton University Press
The Princeton Guide to Evolution is a comprehensive, concise, and authoritative reference to the major subjects and key concepts in evolutionary biology, from genes to mass extinctions. Edited by a distinguished team of evolutionary biologists, with contributions from leading researchers, the guide contains some 100 clear, accurate, and up-to-date articles on the most important topics in seven major areas: phylogenetics and the history of life; selection and adaptation; evolutionary processes; genes, genomes, and phenotypes; speciation and macroevolution; evolution of behavior, society, and humans; and evolution and modern society. Complete with more than 100 illustrations (including eight pages in color), glossaries of key terms, suggestions for further reading on each topic, and an index, this is an essential volume for undergraduate and graduate students, scientists in related fields, and anyone else with a serious interest in evolution. Explains key topics in some 100 concise and authoritative articles written by a team of leading evolutionary biologists Contains more than 100 illustrations, including eight pages in color Each article includes an outline, glossary, bibliography, and cross-references Covers phylogenetics and the history of life; selection and adaptation; evolutionary processes; genes, genomes, and phenotypes; speciation and macroevolution; evolution of behavior, society, and humans; and evolution and modern society
The collection of empirical, theoretical, and synthetic chapters in Metacommunities seeks to understand how communities work in fragmented landscapes.
Author: Marcel Holyoak
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Until recently community ecology—a science devoted to understanding the patterns and processes of species distribution and abundance—focused mainly on specific and often limited scales of a single community. Since the 1970s, for example, metapopulation dynamics—studies of interacting groups of populations connected through movement—concentrated on the processes of population turnover, extinction, and establishment of new populations. Metacommunities takes the hallmarks of metapopulation theory to the next level by considering a group of communities, each of which may contain numerous populations, connected by species interactions within communities and the movement of individuals between communities. In examining communities open to dispersal, the book unites a broad range of ecological theories, presenting some of the first empirical investigations and revealing the value of the metacommunity approach. The collection of empirical, theoretical, and synthetic chapters in Metacommunities seeks to understand how communities work in fragmented landscapes. Encouraging community ecologists to rethink some of the leading theories of population and community dynamics, Metacommunities urges ecologists to expand the spatiotemporal scales of their research.
Bacteriophages: Biology and Applications provides unparalleled, comprehensive information on bacteriophages and their applications, such as
Author: Elizabeth Kutter
Publisher: CRC Press
In response to the emergence of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be treated with current antibiotics, many researchers are revisiting the use of bacteriophages, or phages, to fight multidrug-resistant bacteria. Bacteriophages: Biology and Applications provides unparalleled, comprehensive information on bacteriophages and their applications, such as phage therapy. It offers techniques, media, and methodology involved in isolating and working with therapeutic phages. Photographs, line drawings, and electron micrographs of phages are also included. With its broad approach, this book is a useful reference for microbiologists, hematologists, and infectious disease researchers.
Author: Stephen Tobias AbedonPublish On: 2015-03-26
These are considered here across diverse systems and environments.
Author: Stephen Tobias Abedon
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Viruses infect numerous microorganisms including, predominantly, Bacteria (bacteriophages or phages) but also Archaea, Protists, and Fungi. They are the most abundant and ubiquitous biological entities on Earth and are important drivers of ecosystem functioning. Little is known, however, about the vast majority of these viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs. Modern techniques such as metagenomics have enabled the discovery and description of more presumptive VoMs than ever before, but also have exposed gaps in our understanding of VoM ecology. Exploring the ecology of these viruses – which is how they interact with host organisms, the abiotic environment, larger organisms, and even other viruses across a variety of environments and conditions – is the next frontier. Integration of a growing molecular understanding of VoMs with ecological studies will expand our knowledge of ecosystem dynamics. Ecology can be studied at multiple levels including individual organisms, populations, communities, whole ecosystems, and the entire biosphere. Ecology additionally can consider normal, equilibrium conditions or instead perturbations. Perturbations are of particular interest because measuring the effect of disturbances on VoM-associated communities provides important windows into how VoMs contribute to ecosystem dynamics. These disturbances in turn can be studied through in vitro, in vivo, and in situ experimentation, measuring responses by VoM-associated communities to changes in nutrient availability, stress, physical disruption, seasonality, etc., and could apply to studies at all ecological levels. These are considered here across diverse systems and environments.
Abedon, S.T. (Ed.). (2008). Bacteriophage ecology: population growth, evolution,
and impact of bacterial viruses (pp. 302–332). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511541483 Ackerman, J.T., & Eagles-
Author: Soni, Shivani
Publisher: IGI Global
Category: Technology & Engineering
As a paradigm for the future, micro-scale technology seeks to fuse revolutionary concepts in science and engineering and then translate it into reality. Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to connect what is seen with the naked eye and what is unseen on the molecular level. The Handbook of Research on Diverse Applications of Nanotechnology in Biomedicine, Chemistry, and Engineering examines the strengths and future potential of micro-scale technologies in a variety of industries. Highlighting the benefits, shortcomings, and emerging perspectives in the application of nano-scale technologies, this book is a comprehensive reference source for synthetic chemists, engineers, graduate students, and researchers with an interest in the multidisciplinary applications, as well as the ongoing research in the field.
Ó 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
SECTION II VIRUSES OF OTHER MICROORGANISMS BACTERIOPHAGE AND
VIRAL ECOLOGY. CHAPTER 4 OF VIRUSES MICHAEL J. ALLEN Plymouth
Author: Christon J. Hurst
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This book explains the ecology of viruses by examining their interactive dynamics with their hosting species (in this volume, in microbes and plants), including the types of transmission cycles that viruses have evolved encompassing principal and alternate hosts, vehicles, and vectoring species. Examining virology from an organismal biology approach and focusing on the concept that viral infections represent areas of overlap in the ecologies of the involved species, Viral Ecology is essential for students and professionals who either may be non-virologists or virologists whose previous familiarity has been very specialized.
Asaresultofvarioushumanactivities,suchasincreaseinhumanpopulation,decrease in arable land due to soil degradation, urbanization, industrialization and associated increase in the demand for livestock products, dramatic changes are occurring in the global ruminant livestock sector. These changes includeshift inthesize of regional livestock populations and in the types of management and feeding systems under which ruminant livestock are held, and increased demand of a wider range of quality attributes from animal agriculture, not just of the products themselves but also of the methods used in their production. The livestock sector will need to respond to newchallengesofincreasinglivestockproductivitywhileprotectingenvironmentand human health and conservingbiodiversity and natural resources. The micro-organisms in the digestive tracts of ruminant livestock have a profound in?uence on the conversion offeedinto end products, which can impact on the- imal and theenvironment. As the livestock sector grows particularly in developing countries, there will be an increasing need to understand these processes for b- ter management and use ofbothfeed and other natural resources that underpinthe development of sustainable feeding systems.
CONCLUDING REMARKS As the aforementioned studies demonstrate , recent
laboratory experiments with phage 06 are highly valuable for elucidating seldom
- studied aspects of phage ecology . Laboratory studies in the evolutionary ...
Author: Luo Yiqi
Population Dynamics and Laboratory Ecology highlights the contributions laboratory studies are making to our understanding of the dynamics of ecological and evolutionary systems. Chapters address the scientific rationale for laboratory ecology, its historical role within the broader discipline, and recent advances in research. The book presents results from a wide range of laboratory systems including insects, mites, plankton, protists, and microbes. A common theme throughout the book is the value of microcosm studies in advancing our knowledge of ecological and evolutionary principles. Each chapter is authored by scientists who are leading experts in their fields. The book addresses fundamental questions that are of interest to biologists whether they work in the laboratory or field or whether they are primarily empiricists or theorists. Details a scientific rationale for laboratory systems in ecological and evolutionary studies Offers a view on historical role of laboratory studies Includes examples of recent research advances in ecology and evolution using laboratory systems, ranging from insects to microbes Integrates mathematics, statistics and experimental studies
Author: Margaret J. McFall NgaiPublish On: 2005-08-22
Thus , observations about the role of phage in bacteria associated with insects
date back to the very beginning of phage biology . The history of phage biology
and ecology suggests the potential for their use in ecological studies .
Author: Margaret J. McFall Ngai
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Broad-ranging and cross-disciplinary overview of the evolution and mechanisms of beneficial host-pathogen interactions.