This book is a global augmentation of the climatological tropospheric temperature profiles in the Northern Hemisphere for different latitude belts and seasons.
Author: Young Yee
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
For more than three decades, the US Standard Atmosphere has been used by researchers and professionals in many areas of aeronautics and atmospheric sciences. It is an idealized, all season average temperature profile of the earth's atmosphere. But today's modern day and sophisticated global applications require more extensive representations of the mean temperature profile. This book is a global augmentation of the climatological tropospheric temperature profiles in the Northern Hemisphere for different latitude belts and seasons. There are 72 mean temperature profile tables from the surface up to 10 kilometers in height that represent the four seasons for different latitudinal belts (5° N, 10° N , 15° N, 20° N, 25° N, 30° N, 35° N, 40° N, 45° N, 50° N, 55° N, 60° N, 65° N, 70° N, 75° N, 80° N, 85° N). The model is based on a neural network algorithm that uses archived radiosonde data, retrieved temperature profiles from remote sensors, and the solar insolation at the top of the earth's atmosphere. It is the most comprehensive book of mean seasonal tropospheric temperature profiles to date. It will be an indispensible reference to the aeronautic and meteorological industries worldwide as well as an easy-to-use guide for climatologists, meteorologists, aeronautic engineers, researchers and aviators.
Hence the temperature response at levels both above and below the surface may
provide an additional constraint on the magnitudes of each of these forcings, as
may the difference between Northern and Southern Hemisphere changes ...
Author: Mian Chin
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
This Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP) critically reviews current knowledge about global distributions and properties of atmospheric aerosols, as they relate to aerosol impacts on climate. It assesses possible next steps aimed at substantially reducing uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates. Current measurement techniques and modeling approaches are summarized, providing context. The objectives of this report are: (1) to promote a consensus about the knowledge base for climate change decision support; and (2) to provide a synthesis and integration of the current knowledge of the climate-relevant impacts of anthropogenic aerosols. Illustrations.
For example, the cold California Current off the west coast of the United States
moderates air temperatures from the state of ... of insolation, net radiation, and air temperature for a typical land-based location in the Northern Hemisphere at 45°
of latitude on the equinoxes and solstices. ... The relative placement of the temperature profiles for the various dates is associated to the amount of net
Author: Michael Pidwirny
Publisher: Our Planet Earth Publishing
Chapter 6: Energy, Temperature and Heat of the eBook Understanding Physical Geography. This eBook was written for students taking introductory Physical Geography taught at a college or university. For the chapters currently available on Google Play presentation slides (Powerpoint and Keynote format) and multiple choice test banks are available for Professors using my eBook in the classroom. Please contact me via email at [email protected] if you would like to have access to these resources. The various chapters of the Google Play version of Understanding Physical Geography are FREE for individual use in a non-classroom environment. This has been done to support life long learning. However, the content of Understanding Physical Geography is NOT FREE for use in college and university courses in countries that have a per capita GDP over $25,000 (US dollars) per year where more than three chapters are being used in the teaching of a course. More specifically, for university and college instructors using this work in such wealthier countries, in a credit-based course where a tuition fee is accessed, students should be instructed to purchase the paid version of this content on Google Play which is organized as one of six Parts (organized chapters). The cost of these Parts works out to only $0.99 per chapter in USA dollars, a very small fee for my work. When the entire textbook (30 chapters) is finished its cost will be only $29.70 in USA dollars. This is far less expensive than similar textbooks from major academic publishing companies whose eBook are around $60.00 to $90.00. Further, revenue generated from the sale of this academic textbook will provide “the carrot” to entice me to continue working hard creating new and updated content. Thanks in advance to instructors and students who abide by these conditions. IMPORTANT - This Google Play version is best viewed with a computer using Google Chrome, Firefox or Apple Safari browsers.
The paper by L.S. Dubrovina (VNHGMI—MTsD), "Calculations ofthe Vertical
Thickness and Probability of Cloud at ... of random variations in the vertical profiles of temperature and humidity in the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere it is ...
Author: National Research CouncilPublish On: 2007-01-05
... global average temperature is produced as a combination of nearsurface land air temperatures and temperatures ofthe sea ... Land air temperatures are
measurements taken by thermometers mounted in shelters about 1.5 meters
above the land ... For example, borehole temperature profiles are sensitive to the
ground surface temperatures, and ice isotopic ratios ... The Northern Hemisphere
extratropical land area estimate has the largest variability of the three because
the mid- and ...
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
In response to a request from Congress, Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 2,000 Years assesses the state of scientific efforts to reconstruct surface temperature records for Earth during approximately the last 2,000 years and the implications of these efforts for our understanding of global climate change. Because widespread, reliable temperature records are available only for the last 150 years, scientists estimate temperatures in the more distant past by analyzing "proxy evidence," which includes tree rings, corals, ocean and lake sediments, cave deposits, ice cores, boreholes, and glaciers. Starting in the late 1990s, scientists began using sophisticated methods to combine proxy evidence from many different locations in an effort to estimate surface temperature changes during the last few hundred to few thousand years. This book is an important resource in helping to understand the intricacies of global climate change.
... radiation or outgoing long-wave radiation, thus affecting the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere. radioactive ... In the Northern Hemisphere,
the horizontal shear vorticity associated with the westerly jet stream is cyclonic
Author: Elaine Barrow
Our understanding of climate and its role in human affairs has changed markedly over recent years, as have climate observation systems and modelling capabilities. Reliance on recent weather statistics to provide a guide for future climate is no longer viable. Evidence of human-induced climate change has placed climate high on political and the media agendas. Climates of the British Isles provides a comprehensive account of what we know about climate and changing climates at the end of the twentieth century. Integrating the historical and geographical dimensions of climate, the crucial link between past and future climatic conditions is examined through the geographical lens of the British Isles. Climates of past ages are reconstructed and full descriptions of present climate are illustrated by a wealth of graphs, maps and images. Important climate data sets are provided. Marking the twenty-fifth anniversary of the internationally acclaimed Climatic Research Unit, this book distils much of the leading research of present and recent members of the unit and presents an authoritative, accessible view of climatic change and prospects for the next millenium and beyond.
In preparation for assimilation of the observations in to a three dimensional
analysis of atmospheric temperature and humidity, the observations have ... with
calculated top of atmosphere brightness temperatures using a radiative transfer
model and six hour forecast temperature and humidity profiles. ... northern hemisphere.
Author: Paulo Pampaloni
This book contains a selection of refereed papers presented at the 6 Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing of the Environment held in Florence, Italy on March 15-18, 1999. Over the last two decades, passive microwave remote sensing has made considerable progress, and has achieved significant results in the study of the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Many years of observations with ground-based and satellite-borne sensors have made an important contribution to improving our knowledge of many geophysical processes of the Earth's environment and of global changes. The evolution in microwave radiometers aboard satellites has increased steadily over recent years. At the same time, many investigations have been carried out both to improve the algorithms for the retrieval of geophysical parameters and to develop new technologies. The book is divided into four main sections: three of these are devoted to the observation of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, and the fourth, to future missions and new technologies. The first section deals with the study of sea and land surfaces, and reports recent advances in remote sensing of ocean wind, sea ice, soil moisture and vegetation biomass, including electromagnetic modelling and the assimilation of radiometric data in models of land surface processes. The following two sections are devoted to the measurement of atmospheric quantities which are of fundamental importance in climatology and meteorology, and, since they influence radio-wave propagation, they also impact on several other fields, including geodesy, navigational satellite and radioastronomy. The last section presents an overview of new technologies and plans for future missions.
Methods for retrieving atmospheric temperature profiles from measurements of
the emitted thermal radiation are described. ... The present network of radiosonde
stations is concentrated on the continents of the northern hemisphere and the ...
Author: T. Lund
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Spåtind, Norway, April 9-19, 1978
concentrations of gases and aerosol particles are affected by winds, temperatures, vertical temperature profiles, clouds, ... is really an acceleration of
moving air to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and left in the Southern Hemisphere and ...
Author: Mark Z. Jacobson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Accessible introductory textbook for students and researchers, and an introduction for general audiences.
... structure of the atmosphere and its associated temperature profile The earth's
energy budget The latitudinal imbalance ... mid-latitude westerlies in the northern hemisphere Schematic diagram ofthe vertical circulation of the atmosphere and ...
Author: David Kemp
This book provides a balanced account of the global environmental issues which threaten our society and which we neglect at our peril. Analysing both social and environmental components of the issues - global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain and drought - the book offers a valuable integrative approach and a detailed analysis of environmental issues in a clear, non-technical manner. Emphasising the climatological dimension common to all environmental issues, Global Environmental Issues recognises the multi-faceted nature of the issues, their common causes and the possibility of common solutions. Assessment of socio-economic, cultural amd political factors provides a balanced introduction to both the dangers and advantages of human interference with the environment. What have we done to deserve our current environmental crisis? Can we solve our current environmental problems, or is it too late? This new edition of a best selling text is completely updated and expands to include greater detail and new material such as a new section on atmospheric modelling. A glossary has been added together with a bibliography for further reading at the end of each chapter, allowing readers to develop their interest in specific areas. The interdisciplinary text will prove invaluable to students in geography, environmental studies and other courses in whcih the environmental approach is emphasised.