Apoptosis in Carcinogenesis and Chemotherapy

Apoptosis in Carcinogenesis and Chemotherapy

Apoptosis in cancer George G. Chen, Paul B. S. Lai ... Apoptosis in
Carcinogenesis and Chemotherapy, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-9597-913, C
Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009 295 approximately 10 cases per
100,000 persons ...

Author: George G. Chen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402095979

Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 128

Although research on carcinogenesis has focused more on cellular proliferation than on cell death, yet understanding the mechanism of apoptosis may have important implications for cancer therapy. This book brings together experts from around the world who will discuss the common cancers encountered in clinical practice in the laboratory setting. During the induction of these common cancers, the role of apoptosis in cellular and molecular changes is emphasized, critically highlighting possible anti-cancer strategies. For those who are interested in carcinogenesis and for those who are seeking new approaches to anti-cancer therapy, this book is an important reference. It serves not only as a reference of the current understanding of apoptosis in common cancers but also an important bridge between the laboratory and clinical practice. The editors and contributors are to be congratulated in bringing together an important pool of up-to-date knowledge to light and further our interest in this exciting and expanding ?eld. Arthur K. C. Li Emeritus Professor of Surgery The Chinese University of Hong Kong v Preface The role of apoptosis in cancer development and emerging treatment strategies has rapidly expanded over the past few years. The novel discovery in the apoptotic pa- ways and their relevant molecules provides us not only the knowledge how tumors develop but also the opportunity to design new therapeutic tools to prevent or inhibit the growth of tumors with minimal side-effects. Undoubtedly, understanding the events involved at a molecular level can permit the manipulation of apoptosis for therapeutic purposes.
Categories: Medical

Targets for Cancer Chemotherapy

Targets for Cancer Chemotherapy

Apoptin, a protein derived from chicken anemia virus, induces a p53-
independent apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells. Cancer Res 1995; 55:486–
489. 16. Noteborn MHM, Danen-van Oorschot AAAM, Van der Eb AJ. The
Apoptin® gene of ...

Author: Nicholas B. La Thangue

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781592591534

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 540

In Targets for Cancer Chemotherapy: Transcription Factors and Other Nuclear Proteins, a panel of leading basic researchers, pharmaceutical scientists, and clinical oncologists explain in detail the therapeutically-relevant protein targets that contribute to cancer pathology and spell out their implications for cancer drug discovery and clinical application. The authors identify and illuminate selected transcription factor oncoproteins and tumor suppressors, together with nuclear proteins that are central to the phenotype of the tumor cell involved in chromatin control. The emphasis is on new targets and approaches to cancer treatment derived from the cancer cell cycle, gene control targets, and angiogenesis.
Categories: Medical

Principles of Molecular Oncology

Principles of Molecular Oncology

Samimi G, Fink D, Varki NM, et al. Analysis of MLH1 and MSH2 expression in
ovarian cancer before and after platinum drug-based chemotherapy. Clin Cancer
Res. 2000; 6:1415–1421. Hengartner MO. The biochemistry of apoptosis. Nature.

Author: Miguel H. Bronchud

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781592596645

Category: Medical

Page: 709

View: 535

At the midpoint of the 20th century, our knowledge of cancer was based on epide- ology and pathology, and treatment consisted of surgery and radiation therapy. At mid-century, Medawar and colleagues initiated the understanding of transplantation immunology, Farber described the first use of an antifolic drug to treat leukemia, and Jacobson and coworkers described the irradiation-protection effect of spleen cells. These observations opened the door to the development of chemotherapy and tra- plantation in the treatment of cancer. Despite the rapid development of these new disciplines, progress was usually based on empiric observations and clinical trials. The rapid advances in molecular biology at the end of the 20th century mark a new era in our knowledge of cancer. Molecular immunology, molecular genetics, mole- lar pharmacology, and the Human Genome Project are in the process of providing a level of understanding of cancer undreamed of in the past. Optimism is based on the firm belief that understanding at the molecular level will lead to better and earlier di- nosis, to new forms of treatment, and, most importantly, eventually to prevention of many types of cancer.
Categories: Medical

Novel Apoptotic Regulators in Carcinogenesis

Novel Apoptotic Regulators in Carcinogenesis

Apoptosis Inducer from Streblus asper Extracts for Cancer Chemoprevention
Azman Seeni, Nur Ayunie Zulkepli, and Ridhwan Abdul Wahab Abstract One of
the approaches to control cancer is prevention through consumption of fruits and
 ...

Author: George G. Chen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400749177

Category: Medical

Page: 300

View: 318

Our recent understanding of the cellular and molecular defects and the regulation of the apoptotic signalling pathways has resulted in rationally designed anticancer strategies and the development of novel agents that regulates apoptosis. A comprehensive review of all apoptotic-related anticancer therapies is not the purpose of this book. However, in the volume of this book with 11 chapters, we have described a number of novel apoptotic regulators that have shown promising value and also great feasibility for cancer treatment. These novel agents either occur naturally or are chemically synthesized. While we are excited about the discovery and development of these novel apoptotic regulators as potential anticancer agents, a degree of caution should be always borne in mind when interpreting the success of preclinical pro-apoptotic candidates since potential problems inevitably lie ahead. These problems usually include target specificity, unanticipated toxicity, compound stability, formulation issues, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. Nevertheless, we believe that this collection of 11 chapters by established leaders in the area of apoptosis will be of great interest to not only academics working in the field of cancer research and apoptosis but also pharmaceutical and pharmacological industries that . We are looking forward to the further development to push these potential agents toward clinical stage.
Categories: Medical

Role of Nutraceuticals in Cancer Chemosensitization

Role of Nutraceuticals in Cancer Chemosensitization

[59] Telang N, Katdare M. Combinatorial prevention of carcinogenic risk in a
model for familial colon cancer. ... Curcumin promotes apoptosis, increases
chemosensitivity, and inhibits nuclear factor kappaB in esophageal
adenocarcinoma.

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128123744

Category: Medical

Page: 398

View: 539

Role of Nutraceuticals in Chemoresistance to Cancer, Volume Two, focuses on nutraceuticals, the compounds derived from natural sources, which are usually multi-targeted as a means to overcome chemoresistance. This book discusses the role of several compounds related to nutraceuticals and chemoresistance, such as curcumin, resveratrol, indole 3-carbinol, tocotrienols, ursolic acid, fisetin, celastrol, gambogic, butein, catechins and silymarin. It is a valuable resource for cancer researchers, oncologists and members of several areas of the biomedical field who are interested in understanding how to use nutraceuticals as a sensitizing agent for chemotherapy. Brings updated information on natural compounds used as specific inhibitors of cell signaling pathways as reviewed by experts in the field Presents experts analysis and summary of reported and novel findings and potential translational application in cancer patients Describes molecular mechanisms with new and helpful approaches for the readers to use in their own investigations
Categories: Medical

Chemoradiation in Cancer Therapy

Chemoradiation in Cancer Therapy

The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib induces apoptosis by blocking Akt
activation in human prostate cancer cells independently of Bcl-2. ... Colorectal
cancer chemoprevention: aspirin, other NSAID and COX-2 inhibitors. Aust NZ J
Surg ...

Author: Hak Choy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781592593255

Category: Medical

Page: 420

View: 700

Internationally recognized experts in cancer biology and clinical research review the present status of the multimodality approach to the management of solid tumors and speculate on possible future strategies for chemoradiation therapy. The authors detail applications of combined modality therapy in lung, esophageal, breast, gastric, pancreatic, colon, and rectal cancers. They also show how radiation interacts with such chemotherapeutic agents as the platinum complexes, taxanes, and gemcitabine in the treatment of malignant gliomas, and head and neck cancer. A review of how to integrate new specific molecular targeted agents into multimodality therapy in the future.
Categories: Medical

Roles of NF B in Cancer and Their Therapeutic Approaches

Roles of NF   B in Cancer and Their Therapeutic Approaches

Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factors are associated with anti-
apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and chemoresistance, and thus, constitute attractive
targets for therapeutic intervention. In immunoblots, we show that ubiquitin
specific ...

Author: Véronique Baud

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783038971177

Category: Science

Page: 339

View: 583

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Roles of NF-κB in Cancer and Their Therapeutic Approaches" that was published in Biomedicines
Categories: Science

Cancer Ecosystems

Cancer Ecosystems

Author: Ubaldo E. Martinez-Outschoorn

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889631759

Category:

Page:

View: 380

Categories:

Hormonal Carcinogenesis V

Hormonal Carcinogenesis V

Cancer. Cells. Can. Enhance. Apoptosis-dependent. Chemo-sensitivity.
Independently. of. Its. Catalytic. Activity. Melanie Beaujouin and Emmanuelle
Liaudet-Coopman Summary The aspartic protease cathepsin D (CD) is a key
mediator of ...

Author: Jonathan J. Li

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387690808

Category: Medical

Page: 658

View: 156

Information gathered from cell-free systems, cell cultures, animal models, and human studies, together provide important insights to our understanding of hormonal cancer causation, development, and prevention; the primary objective of these Symposia. A special emphasis is placed on the two major endocrine-related cancers, that is, breast and prostate. The emerging fields of colon, lung, and pancreatic cancers in relation to hormones are examined.
Categories: Medical

Cancer Immunotherapy at the Crossroads

Cancer Immunotherapy at the Crossroads

MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF APOPTOSIS IN CANCER CELLS Anticancer
therapeutic regimens such as chemo-, radiation-, and immunotherapy may
trigger tumor-cell death through the induction of apoptosis. Alterations in the
apoptotic ...

Author: James H. Finke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781592597437

Category: Medical

Page: 386

View: 630

Leading investigators and clinicians detail the different mechanisms used by tumors to escape and impair the immune system and then spell out possible clinical strategies to prevent or reverse tumor-induced immune dysfunction. The authors review the mechanisms of immune dysfunction and evasion mechanisms in histologically diverse human tumors, focusing on tumor-induced molecular defects in T cells and antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and tumors), that may serve as biomarkers for patient prognosis. They discuss the means by which these immune functions may be protected or restored in order to more effectively support the process of tumor rejection in situ. Cutting-edge techniques are outlined with the capacity to monitor the strength and quality of patients' immune responses using immunocytometry, MHC-peptide tetramers combined with apoptosis assay, ELISPOT assay, and detection of MHC-TAA peptide complexes on tumor cells.
Categories: Medical

Mitochondrial Genetics and Cancer

Mitochondrial Genetics and Cancer

Apoptosis. and. Cancer. Abstract Cell death processes are important to cancer
initiation, progression and chemotherapy resistance. While the importance of the
extrinsic apoptotic pathway is not diminished in this chapter, the primary focus is
 ...

Author: Gabriel D. Dakubo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642114164

Category: Medical

Page: 356

View: 852

With very few exceptions, eukaryotic cells possess two interdependent genomes, chromosomal and extra-chromosomal. Over the past several decades, cancer - search has focused primarily on deciphering the intricate alterations in the chro- somal genome, with until recently, very little attention to its cytoplasmic counterpart. In spite of the enormous complexity of the nuclear genome, which we now fully appreciate after completion of the human genome project, the efforts of cancer researchers are commendable in terms of the tremendous gains made in unraveling the numerous genetic changes in cancer. These changes include d- coveries of tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, and caretaker genes that are often mutated in cancer. Recent studies of genomic pro?les are uncovering even more altered and mutated genes in cancer. Besides these ?ndings, several therapeutic targets for chemotherapy are currently made from studies of altered nuclear genetic pathways. Inspite of all these positive efforts, the war on cancer, declared in 1971 by Richard Nixon, is far from being worn. Indeed, the failure of chemotherapy is obvious to clinicians, oncologists, and their patients alike. Moreover, the global incidence and prevalence of cancer continue to rise. What are we missing? Which direction should we be taking? Of course, modern integrated nuclear genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics should provide important clues to carcinogenesis, but the contribution of cytoplasmic genetic alterations to carcinogenesis cannot be neglected.
Categories: Medical

Cell Apoptosis Research Progress

Cell Apoptosis Research Progress

... changed to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which preserved organ function
without affecting the survival of the patient. It is now accepted that the ability of
cells to evade apoptosis is an essential hallmark of carcinogenesis, and
furthermore ...

Author: Calvin V. Burnside

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 1604560665

Category: Medical

Page: 329

View: 445

Apoptosis is the regulated form of cell death. It is a complex process defined by a set of characteristic morphological and biochemical features that involves the active participation of affected cells in a self-destruction cascade. This programmed cell death plays a critical role in physiological functions such as cell deletion during embryonic development, balancing cell number in continuously renewing tissues and immune system development. Additionally, a dysregulation of apoptosis is underlying in numerous pathological situations such as Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. A number of studies have pointed out an association between consumption of fruits and vegetables, and certain beverages such as tea and wine, which are rich in polyphenols, with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including cancer. Apoptosis is also the regulatory mechanism involved in the removal of unnecessary cells during development and in tissue homeostasis in a wide range of organisms from insects to mammals.
Categories: Medical

Malignant Liver Tumors

Malignant Liver Tumors

that apoptosis is inhibited in cancer cells indicates the need for new strategies to
restore the blocked pathway . Administration of the ... as a low oxygen
environment . In addition , most traditional anticancer therapies , such as
chemotherapy or ...

Author: H. Kim Lyerly

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 0763718572

Category: Medical

Page: 482

View: 184

This classic reference has been completely revised and updated by a renowned team of editors to produce the most current, comprehensive, and authoritative book available on treating liver cancer. Clearly written, carefully edited, and impeccably referenced, Malignant Liver Tumors, Second Edition, provides the latest information on traditional and cutting-edge surgical approaches, new and emerging drugs and their new generation of delivery systems, radiation therapy, approach to "special" patients, and much more. Expanded to 36 comprehensive but concise chapters by more than 60 world experts, and with over 200 illustrations, this new edition is an invaluable resource for all cancer care professionals who treat patients with liver tumors.This new edition will cover, in 36 concise chapters with over 200 illustrations, the latest drugs and their delivery systems (new generation of pumps), including biotherapies, advances in radiation oncology, and the most recent surgical approaches. This book is an essential resource for anyone who treats cancer patients, including oncologists, radiotherapists, and surgeons.
Categories: Medical

Nutraceuticals and Cancer

Nutraceuticals and Cancer

J Natl Cancer Inst 91:605–613 Miyake H, Muramaki M, Kurahashi Tet al (2006)
Expression of clusterin in prostate cancer ... King MJ et al (2004) The
chemopreventive agent phenethyl isothiocyanate sensitizes cells to Fas-
mediated apoptosis.

Author: Fazlul H. Sarkar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400726309

Category: Medical

Page: 380

View: 786

This book is about Nutraceuticals in cancer therapy, specifically targeted and Adjuvant therapy. It shows several approaches for possibly reducing systemic toxicity. This book illustrates the role of several dietary agents, collectively called nutraceuticals or natural agents in the prevention and/or treatment of human malignancies known to be mediated through alterations in multiple molecular targets. This book contains sixteen chapters which begin with historical perspective on the value of natural agents in the prevention of human malignancies followed by a series of current topics on multiple nutraceuticals targeting multiple cancers. This collection would likely be useful for bringing newer generations with broader perspectives in launching cutting-edge innovative molecular research, which would certainly help in designing targeted clinical trials in order to realize the dream of customize strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of human malignancies without causing any systemic toxicity. Moreover, the knowledge gained would allow novel utilization of nutraceuticals as adjunct to both conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy in order to improve the overall quality of life and survival of patients diagnosed with cancers.
Categories: Medical

Cancer Drug Resistance Research Perspectives

Cancer Drug Resistance Research Perspectives

However , the current regimens of cisplatin - based chemotherapy have no
advantages for survival due to less sensitivity , or ... That is to say , the
development of cisplatin resistance in cancer cells is related with alterations in
apoptosis , and ...

Author: Liman S. Torres

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 1600215726

Category: Medical

Page: 223

View: 881

One of the main causes of failure in the treatment of cancer is the development of drug resistance by the cancer cells. The design of cancer chemotherapy has become increasingly sophisticated, yet there is no cancer treatment that is 100% effective against disseminated cancer. Resistance to treatment with anticancer drugs results from a variety of factors including individual variations in patients and somatic cell genetic differences in tumours, even those from the same tissue of origin. Frequently resistance is intrinsic to the cancer, but as therapy becomes more and more effective, acquired resistance has also become common. The most common reason for acquisition of resistance to a broad range of anticancer drugs is expression of one or more energy-dependent transporters that detect and eject anticancer drugs from cells, but other mechanisms of resistance including insensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis and induction of drug-detoxifying mechanisms probably play an important role in acquired anticancer drug resistance. Studies on mechanisms of cancer drug resistance have yielded important information about how to circumvent this resistance to improve cancer chemotherapy and have implications for pharmacokinetics of many commonly used drugs. This book presents new and important research in this field.
Categories: Medical

Colon Cancer New Insights for the Healthcare Professional 2011 Edition

Colon Cancer  New Insights for the Healthcare Professional  2011 Edition

colon cancer risk haplotype on chromosome 9q22. ... (2010 JUL 26) Panjab
University, Chandigarh: Chemopreventive effect of different ratios of fish oil and
corn oil in experimental colon carcinogenesis A ... to moderate inflammation,
decreased ROS and TrxR activity, increased antioxidants, apoptosis and ACF
multiplicity.

Author:

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 9781464900006

Category: Medical

Page: 902

View: 799

Colon Cancer: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Colon Cancer. The editors have built Colon Cancer: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Colon Cancer in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Colon Cancer: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Categories: Medical

Protein Kinase C in Cancer Signaling and Therapy

Protein Kinase C in Cancer Signaling and Therapy

PKCe has been shown to promote cell survival and contribute to
chemoresistance in human lung cancer cells (Ding et al. 2002 ... The chemo-
protective effect of PKCe is mediated primarily by suppression of drug-induced
apoptosis through a ...

Author: Marcelo G. Kazanietz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781607615439

Category: Medical

Page: 494

View: 996

Protein kinase C (PKC), a family of serine-threonine kinases, rocketed to the forefront of the cancer research field in the early 1980’s with its identification as an effector of phorbol esters, natural products with tumor promoting activity. Phorbol esters had long been of interest to the cancer research field due to early studies in the mouse skin carcinogenesis model, which showed that prolonged topical application of phorbol esters promoted the formation of skin tumors on mice previously treated with mutagenic agents. Research in the last years has established key roles for PKC isozymes in the control of cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, and malignant transformation. In addition, there is a large body of evidence linking PKC to invasion and cancer cell metastasis. Moreover, it is now well established that the expression of PKC isozymes is altered in various types of cancers. More importantly, small molecule inhibitors have been developed with significant anti-cancer activity. The relevance of PKC isozymes in cancer signaling is therefore remarkable. This book will have 4 sections. There will be 23 chapters. Each section will have a brief introduction by an expert in the field (~ 1-2 pages).
Categories: Medical

Cell Apoptosis Research Trends

Cell Apoptosis Research Trends

Cancer. Takeo Nomura and Hiromitsu Mimata Department of Oncological
Science (Urology), Oita University Faculty of ... expression with prostate
carcinogenesis, and analyzes the roles of IAPs in chemotherapy In: Cell
Apoptosis Research ...

Author: Charles V. Zhang

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 160021424X

Category: Science

Page: 293

View: 630

Apoptosis is the regulated form of cell death. It is a complex process defined by a set of characteristic morphological and biochemical features that involves the active participation of affected cells in a self-destruction cascade. This programmed cell death plays a critical role in physiological functions such as cell deletion during embryonic development, balancing cell number in continuously renewing tissues and immune system development. Additionally, a dysregulation of apoptosis is underlying in numerous pathological situations such as Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. A number of studies have pointed out an association between consumption of fruits and vegetables, and certain beverages such as tea and wine, which are rich in polyphenols, with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including cancer. Apoptosis is also the regulatory mechanism involved in the removal of unnecessary cells during development and in tissue homeostasis in a wide range of organisms from insects to mammals. This book presents exciting research in this related field.
Categories: Science

Cancer Cell Structures Carcinogens and Genomic Instability

Cancer  Cell Structures  Carcinogens and Genomic Instability

In the last two decades , cancer researchers have made great strides in our
understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism of apoptosis in
chemoresistance generation and tumorigenesis . This tremendous increase in
our knowledge ...

Author: Leon P. Bignold

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3764371560

Category: Medical

Page: 375

View: 196

Tumors can be induced by a variety of physical and chemical carcinogens. The resulting tumor cells are usually abnormal in their morphology and behavior and transmit their abnormalities to their daughter tumor cells. Most theories of the pathogenesis of tumors suggest that carcinogens in some way cause alterations either of the genomes or of inheritable patterns of gene expression in normal cells, which then cause morphological and behavioral changes. This volume presents a collection of articles aimed at the question by what genetic or epigenetic mechanisms carcinogens can cause morphological abnormalities of tumor cells. It includes reviews of cellular targets of known carcinogens, and presents varying viewpoints of how morphological abnormalities and the actions of carcinogens might be related. The volume will be of interest to all those who are involved in cancer research or in the prevention, diagnosis or management of tumors in humans or animals.
Categories: Medical

Progress in Cancer Drug Resistance Research

Progress in Cancer Drug Resistance Research

However, the current regimens of cisplatin-based chemotherapy have no
advantages for survival due to the less sensitivity or ... That is to say, the
development of cisplatin resistance in cancer cells is related with alterations in
apoptosis, and ...

Author: Robert A. Parsons

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 1600218229

Category: Medical

Page: 223

View: 123

One of the main causes of failure in the treatment of cancer is the development of drug resistance by the cancer cells. The design of cancer chemotherapy has become increasingly sophisticated, yet there is no cancer treatment that is 100 percent effective against disseminated cancer. Resistance to treatment with anticancer drugs results from a variety of factors including individual variations in patients and somatic cell genetic differences in tumours, even those from the same tissue of origin. Frequently resistance is intrinsic to the cancer, but as therapy becomes more and more effective, acquired resistance has also become common.The most common reason for acquisition of resistance to a broad range of anticancer drugs is expression of one or more energy-dependent transporters that detect and eject anti-cancer drugs from cells, but other mechanisms of resistance including insensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis and induction of drug-detoxifying mechanisms probably play an important role in acquired anticancer drug resistance. Studies on mechanisms of cancer drug resistance have yielded important information on how to circumvent this resistance to improve cancer chemotherapy and have implications for pharmacokinetics of many commonly used drugs.
Categories: Medical